Encyclopedia Astronautica
Block D-2 11S824F



11d68det.jpg
Engine 11D68 detail
Close-up view of the 11D68 Block D lunar crasher stage showing detail of the BOZ orientation/ullage thrusters that control the stage during coast, restart, and manoeuvre.
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian space tug. 3 launches, (1988) to (1996). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by . Also known as Block D-2; article number 11S824F. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload).

Successor to 11S824M. Used for launch of Lavochkin Mars-bound spacecraft in 1988 and 1996.

Unit Cost $: 4.000 million.

AKA: 11S824; Block D; D-1-e.
Gross mass: 16,900 kg (37,200 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb).
Height: 5.50 m (18.00 ft).
Diameter: 3.70 m (12.10 ft).
Span: 3.70 m (12.10 ft).
Thrust: 85.02 kN (19,113 lbf).
Specific impulse: 352 s.
Number: 3 .

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Associated Countries
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Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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