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Columbus Attached Pressurised Module

Columbus Attached 85
ESA Columbus Attached Pressurised Module. COLUMBUS Attached Pressurized Module (Aeritalia concept, early 1986).
Credit: ESA via Marcus Lindroos
Columbus PM 89
Columbus Attached Pressurised Module
Credit: ESA via Marcus Lindroos
European manned space station module. Study 1985. The European Space Agency formally joined the American Space Station project in May 1985, but the negotiations between ESA and NASA were often difficult.

The Europeans complained that the Americans would not allow them to build any high-tech elements such as the pressurized modules. Technology transfer and the principle of non-discriminatory access to the Station for European users also caused problems. Congress initially insisted that the European laboratory module only be used for non-commercial life sciences experiments. The initial $80-million Columbus Phase B1 study in 1985 recommended (despite NASA's objections) that ESA build a Columbus laboratory that could be detached from the main Space Station complex for unmanned microgravity experiments. The Americans refused to accept the proposal, saying autonomous control of Columbus would be physically and technologically impossible.

Article by Marcus Lindroos

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  • ESA European agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. European Space Agency, Europe. More...
  • Alenia Italian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Alenia Spazio, Italy. More...

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