Encyclopedia Astronautica
DS-U2-GKA



oreol.jpg
Oreol
Credit: © Mark Wade
oreola.jpg
Oreol
dsu2gka.jpg
DS-U2-GKA
Credit: Yuzhnoye
Soviet-French earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1971.12.27 (Oreol) to 1973.12.26 (Oreol 2). Upper atmosphere, auroral studies. Investigation of physical phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere at high latitudes and study of the nature of auroras.

This was a Soviet-French collaborative project, Russian code name Arkad. Launched by Kosmos-2, the spacecraft studied physics and the characteristics of the upper atmosphere. Instruments included Soviet/French magnetosphere and ionosphere experiments, equipment for studying the physical processes in the earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere, and study of the nature of polar aurora.

AKA: Aureole; Oreol.
Gross mass: 590 kg (1,300 lb).
First Launch: 1971.12.27.
Last Launch: 1973.12.26.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Kosmos 3 In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Kosmos 3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • Kosmos 11K65M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Definitive and prolific production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-14 IRBM. After further development at NPO Polyot (Omsk, Chief Designer A S Klinishkov), the modified Kosmos-3M added a restartable second stage with an orientation system. This booster was launched form two 'Cusovaya' launch complexes from 1967. The second stage used low thrust rockets using gas generator output to adjust the final velocity of the stage More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Yuzhnoye Ukrainian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Yangel Design Bureau, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. More...

Associated Programs
  • Aureole Upper atmosphere, auroral studies. Investigation of physical phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere at high latitudes and study of the nature of auroras. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Agapov, V, "K zapusku pervovo ISZ serii 'DS'", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issue 6.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...

DS-U2-GKA Chronology


1971 December 27 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65014-103.
  • Oreol - . Payload: DS-U2-GKA s/n 1. Mass: 630 kg (1,380 lb). Nation: France. Agency: MO. Program: Aureole. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: DS-U2-GKA. Completed Operations Date: 1972-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 5729 . COSPAR: 1971-119A. Apogee: 1,779 km (1,105 mi). Perigee: 391 km (242 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 106.90 min. Summary: Upper atmosphere, auroral studies. Investigation of physical phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere at high latitudes and study of the nature of auroras. .

1973 December 26 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65024-111.
  • Oreol 2 - . Payload: DS-U2-GKA s/n 2. Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: France. Agency: MO. Program: Aureole. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: DS-U2-GKA. Completed Operations Date: 1974-04-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 7003 . COSPAR: 1973-107A. Apogee: 1,441 km (895 mi). Perigee: 387 km (240 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 103.30 min. Summary: Continued investigations in the earth's upper atmosphere at high latitudes and study of the nature of polar aurorae begun on board the Oreol satellite in 1971..

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