Encyclopedia Astronautica
Dual Lander Mission

Combo Lander
Credit: NASA
American manned Mars expedition. Study 1999. After some discussion within NASA, in the Combo Lander mission was found to be too lean.

It was again reformulated as a Design Reference-Mission type with two landers, six crew sent on two different opportunities, and ISRU production on the surface, and split cargo/crew landers to provide more redundancy. Even with the mass-saving advanced technology assumptions of the Combo Lander study, this drove the total mass required in Low Earth Orbit back to 600 metric tons, and the number of heavy lift launch vehicle launches to 12.

Dual Lander Mission Summary:

  • Summary: Follow-on of combo lander study - back to 2 landers; no formal report, presentation charts only
  • Propulsion: Solar electric/Lox/LH2
  • Braking at Mars: aerodynamic
  • Mission Type: conjunction
  • Split or All-Up: split
  • Launch Year: 2011
  • Crew: 12
  • Mars Surface payload-metric tons: 35
  • Outbound time-days: 200
  • Mars Stay Time-days: 600
  • Return Time-days: 210
  • Total Mission Time-days: 1010
  • Total Payload Required in Low Earth Orbit-metric tons: 600
  • Total Propellant Required-metric tons: 110
  • Propellant Fraction: 0.18
  • Mass per crew-metric tons: 100
  • Launch Vehicle Payload to LEO-metric tons: 75
  • Number of Launches Required to Assemble Payload in Low Earth Orbit: 12
  • Launch Vehicle: Magnum

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
  • Mars Expeditions Since Wernher von Braun first sketched out his Marsprojekt in 1946, a succession of designs and mission profiles were seriously studied in the United States and the Soviet Union. By the late 1960's Von Braun had come to favour nuclear thermal rocket powered expeditions, while his Soviet counterpart Korolev decided that nuclear electric propulsion was the way to go. All such work stopped in both countries in the 1970's, after the cancellation of the Apollo program in the United States and the N1 booster in the Soviet Union. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...

  • Griffin, Brand; Thomas, Brent; Vaughan, Diane, A Comparison of Transportation Systems for Human Missions to Mars, AIAA 2004-3834, 40th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit ,11-14 July 2004.

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