Encyclopedia Astronautica
EGRESS



mmegress.jpg
Martin EGRESS
Martin EGRESS personal orbital escape system, based on the proven B-58 crew capsule
American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1972. The EGRESS space escape system was based on the proven Encapsulated Ejection Seat System developed for the B-58 bomber in the 1960's.

The Martin Marietta EGRESS escape system was quite convincing since it was based on the proven Encapsulated Ejection Seat System developed by Stanley Aviation for the B-58 bomber in the 1960's. The capsules had already proven their capability of protecting the pilot from supersonic wind blast, supplying oxygen and pressurization at high altitude, executing automatic recovery, absorbing landing impact, and providing food, shelter and survival equipment whether landing on water, land, or ice.

For orbital applications the basic B-58 ejection capsule design was retained, while a new disc-shaped heat shield, reaction control system, and retrorocket were added for descent from orbit. The clamshell doors of the capsule were modified to include a window to allow the pilot to orient the craft for retrofire.

The three-piece telescoping clamshell door was pivoted on each side of the seat. The shells were stowed above the pilot's head. When the ejection handles were raised, the doors telescoped down in a quarter of a second and formed an air-tight seal. The closure of the doors activated the emergency oxygen flow. After re-entry, the capsule would separate from the heat shield. A recovery parachute automatically deployed at a pre-set altitude. Landing impact was absorbed by crushable cylinders and stabilization fins. When landing on water, flotation bags would inflate, turning the capsule into a life raft. Mass per crew: 370 kg.

Crew Size: 1.

Gross mass: 370 kg (810 lb).
Height: 2.00 m (6.50 ft).
Span: 2.00 m (6.50 ft).

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Associated Countries
See also
  • Rescue In the early 1960's, in the hey-day of the X-20 Dynasoar, it seemed that the US military would naturally keep building military aerospacecraft that would just keep going higher and faster. It was also supposed that the pilot would have to be given the equivalent of an ejection seat - some means of bailing out of the spacecraft in case of catastrophic failure or enemy attack. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Martin American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Martin Marietta Astronautics Group (1956), Denver, CO, USA. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Solid Solid propellants have the fuel and oxidiser embedded in a rubbery matrix. They were developed to a high degree of perfection in the United States in the 1950's and 1960's. In Russia, development was slower, due to a lack of technical leadership in the area and rail handling problems. Solid propellants have the fuel and oxidiser embedded in a rubbery matrix. They were developed to a high degree of perfection in the United States in the 1950's and 1960's. In Russia, development was slower, due to a lack of technical leadership in the area and rail handling problems. More...

Bibliography
  • Kane, Francis X, "A Thirty Year Perspective on Manned Space Safety and Rescue: Where We've Been; Where We Are; Where We Are Going", IAA, IAA 84-270, 1984.

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