Encyclopedia Astronautica

Credit: USAF Phillips Laboratory
Russian earth atmosphere satellite. Study 1992. The Lavochkin NPO designed a variety of remote sensing spacecraft based on a new 3-axis controlled satellite bus.

5-metric-ton, 4-kW satellite bus named Freight which could be launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on converted SS-18 ICBM's. The two principal remote sensing versions of Freight (other variants could support technological, materials science, and biological science experiments) were EKOL and Ozone. The configuration of the 5.2-metric-ton EKOL varied. Potential payloads included SAR (30- 100 m resolutions) and multi-spectral (0.4-10.3 micrometer with 5-10 m resolution) instruments. Ozone would carry a lidar (0.8 m diameter mirror) at altitudes of 600-900 km to study ozone concentrations as part of its 5-metric-ton mass.

Gross mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb).

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Associated Countries
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Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-36M Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos. More...
  • R-36M2 15A18M Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M2 was the Soviet Union's answer to the American 'Star Wars' anti-ballistic missile system. It was unusually named 'Voevoda' (an old Russian word for the leader of an army) in recognition of its planned role. In the end, it was only deployed in very limited numbers before the end of the Cold War. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Lavochkin Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Lavochkin Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia. More...

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