Encyclopedia Astronautica
Ekspress



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Ekspress
Credit: NPO PM
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Ekspress
Credit: Dmitry Pieson
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Ekspress
Russian communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1994.10.13. The Ekspress series communications satellite closely resembled the Gals spacecraft and shared a similar spacecraft bus.

Ekspress replaced the Gorizont spacecraft, with deployment to 13 geosynchronous positions beginning in 1994 and continuing beyond 2005.

Nine months after Gals 1 was launched, Ekspress 1 was inserted into a nearly geosynchronous orbit. Ekspress was to replace the widely used Gorizont spacecraft, and plans called for deployments at 13 locations (40 degrees , 53 degrees , 80 degrees , 90 degrees , 96.5 degrees , 99 degrees , 103 degrees , 140 degrees , 145 degrees , 205 degrees , 322.5 degrees , 346 degrees , and 349 degrees , all East longitude) just for domestic needs and to support the Intersputnik Telecommunications Association. Additional Ekspress spacecraft were to be sold to foreign companies, e.g., Rimsat, Ltd. In fact, only the first two satellites launched was of the original configuration. Further state-sponsored launches were not funded, however a total of 12, many heavily modified and with European electronics packages, were launched through 2005.

While the Express solar arrays were identical to those on Gals, the spacecraft bus had slightly smaller dimensions of 3.6 m by 6.1 m. A typical Ekspress payload included 10 C-band and two Ku-band transponders. The improved Ekspress-A model was launched from 1999.

The improved Express-AM-1 satellite first flew in 2004 and was produced by Reshetnev NPO PM jointly with NEC/Toshiba Space Systems for the Russian Satellite Communications Company. The satellite was designed to provide a package of communications services (digital TV, telephony, video conferencing, data transmission, the Internet access) and to deploy satellite networks by applying VSAT technology. The Express-AM spacecraft was equipped with up-to-date antenna systems, to provide high-quality communications and uniform coverage in C- and Ku- bands.

Satellite characteristics

  • Orbit Geostationary
  • Station keeping accuracy 0,05 (N&S / E&W)
  • Operational life-time 12 years
  • Stabilization Three axes
  • Payload electric power 4200 W
  • Mass of payload 570 kg
  • Mass of satellite 2600 kg
  • Power supply 6000 W
  • Transponder parameters:
    • C-band: 9 transponders; bandwidth at -1dB, 40 MHz; output power, 40 W (8 transponders), 120 W (1 transponder)
    • Ku-band:18 transponders, bandwidth at -1dB, 54 MHz; output power 95-100 W
    • L-band: 1 transponder; bandwidth at -1dB, 0,5 MHz; output power, 30 W

AKA: 11F639.
Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
First Launch: 1994.10.13.
Last Launch: 2011.08.17.
Number: 16 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This improved four stage version uses the Block DM-2 / 11S861 fourth stage, which has its own guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Replaced the original Block DM / 11S86 version from 1982 to 1995. Used for launch of Glonass navigation satellites into medium earth orbit; and launch of Luch, Ekran-M, Potok, Raduga, Gorizont, Raduga-1, Elektro, and Gals communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit. Commercial version with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for Western payloads was dubbed 'Block DM1'. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2M This four stage version uses the Block DM-2M / 11S861-01 upper stage, which has its own self-contained guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Used for launches of Russian geosynchronous satellites from 1994 on. More...
  • Proton/Briz M Improved Proton orbital launch vehicle. Improvements in lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilize propellants (reducing release of toxic chemicals in stage impact areas). Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaces Block D cyrogenic stage. More...
  • Proton/Briz M Improved Proton orbital launch vehicle. Improvements in lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilize propellants (reducing release of toxic chemicals in stage impact areas). Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaces Block D cyrogenic stage. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Reshetnev Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Reshetnev Design Bureau, Krasnoyarsk-26/Zhelenogorsk, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Kaesmann, Ferdinand, et. al., "Proton - Development of A Russian Launch Vehicle", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 1998, Volume 51, page 3.
  • Voevodin, Sergey A, "Sergey A. Voevodin's Reports", VSA072 - Space Apparatus, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Vladimirov, A, "Tablitsa zapuskov RN 'Proton' i 'Proton K'", Novosti kosmonavtiki, 1998, Issue 10, page 25.
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Ekspress Chronology


1994 October 13 - . 16:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 377-02.
  • Ekspress - . Payload: Ekspress s/n 11L. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress . USAF Sat Cat: 23319 . COSPAR: 1994-067A. Apogee: 35,935 km (22,328 mi). Perigee: 35,887 km (22,299 mi). Inclination: 1.7000 deg. Period: 1,442.40 min. First launch of new Ekspress communications satellite. Replaces Gorizont series. Ekspress 1 reached its checkout location of 70 degrees E at the end of October 1994 and was moved to its operational position at 14 degrees W shortly after the start of 1995. Stationed at 14.00W in 1995-2001. As of 2007 March 10 located at 95.05E drifting at 1.636W degrees per day.

1996 September 26 - . 17:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 379-02.
  • Ekspress No. 12 - . Payload: Ekspress s/n 12L. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: AO Infor. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress . USAF Sat Cat: 24435 . COSPAR: 1996-058A. Apogee: 35,809 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 3.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.50 min. Summary: Stationed at 80.0 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 103.84 deg E drifting at 0.012 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 82.98E drifting at 0.225W degrees per day..

1999 October 27 - . 16:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 386-02. FAILURE: Failed early in second-stage burn.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Ekspress-A1 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. COSPAR: F991027A. Summary: Communications satellite; failed to reach orbit..

2000 March 12 - . 04:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 399-01.
  • Ekspress 6A - . Payload: Ekspress A No. 2. Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Intersputnik. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 26098 . COSPAR: 2000-013A. Apogee: 35,838 km (22,268 mi). Perigee: 35,736 km (22,205 mi). Inclination: 5.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. GO Kosmicheskaya Svyaz geosynchronous communications satellite, to be assigned to the Ekspress 6A slot at 80E. Replaced the first Ekspress A, lost in a launch failure in 1999. Russian satellite bus with a ommunications payload from Alcatel France. Stationed at 80 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 80.02 deg E drifting at 0.008 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 102.77E drifting at 0.018W degrees per day.

2000 April 17 - . 21:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 397-01.
  • Sesat - . Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 26243 . COSPAR: 2000-019A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Sesat (Siberia-Europe Satellite) used an MSS-2500-GSO (Gals/Ekspress) satellite bus built by NPO PM of Krasnoyarsk, with an Alcatel Espace France payload of 18 Ku-band transponders. The satellite had 8 Fakel SPD-100 plasma thrusters for stationkeeping. Eutelsat operated their Hot Bird fleet of European television broadcast satellites since the 1980's, but the venture into broadcasting to Siberia represented a new step for them. Stationed at 36 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 39 deg E in 2000. As of 4 September 2001 located at 35.97 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 35.92E drifting at 0.004E degrees per day.

2000 June 24 - . 00:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 394-02.
  • Ekspress A No. 3 - . Payload: Ekspress A3 / Ekspress 3A. Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Intersputnik. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 26378 . COSPAR: 2000-031A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Launch delayed from June 23. Geosynchronous communications satellite. Stationed at 11 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 11 deg W in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 10.99 deg W drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 11.00W drifting at 0.005E degrees per day.

2002 June 10 - . 01:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 407-01.
  • Ekspress A1R - . Payload: Ekspress A No. 4. Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 27441 . COSPAR: 2002-029A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Launch delayed from May 2002. The Ekspress A1R Russian domestic communications satellite was built by NPO PM and Alcatel for Kosmicheskiya Svyaz, the Russian satcom operator. The Proton's parking orbit was off-nominal but the 11S861-01 Blok DM-2M upper stage corrected for this and delivered the payload to the correct orbit. Parking orbit was about 180 x 185 km x 51.6 deg; transfer orbit after the first DM-2M burn was 328 x 36133 km x 47.4 deg; orbit at spacecraft separation was 36102 x 36171 km x 0.2 deg. Two SOZ ullage motors were left in the transfer orbit. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 14.07W drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.

2003 December 28 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 410-04.
  • Ekspress AM-22 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 28134 . COSPAR: 2003-060A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0400 deg. Period: 1,436.11 min. Summary: The Ekspress AM-22 communications satellite was built by NPO PM and Alcatel Space for GPKS, the Russian Space Communications Company. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 52.99E drifting at 0.005W degrees per day..

2004 April 26 - . 20:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 410-06.
  • Ekspress AM-11 - . Mass: 2,542 kg (5,604 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Reshetnev; Cannes. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 28234 . COSPAR: 2004-015A. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Delayed from April 10. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 79.96W drifting at 3.741W degrees per day..

2004 October 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 410-08.
  • Ekspress AM-1 - . Mass: 2,542 kg (5,604 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: ILS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 28463 . COSPAR: 2004-043A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Russian Satellite Communications Company spacecraft, to be stationed at 40 deg E, providing 28 C, Ku, and L band transponders for a wide range of communications and data services. The Ekspress-AM uses an improved Ekspress-M or 727M bus, first used on the Sesat satellite, while the earlier models used the KAUR-4 MSO-2500 bus. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 39.98E drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.

2005 March 29 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 410-09.
  • Ekspress AM-2 - . Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Reshetnev; Cannes. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 28629 . COSPAR: 2005-010A. Apogee: 35,893 km (22,302 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,438.50 min. Summary: Delayed from December 2004, then moved up from March 31, 2005. Communications payload of C, Ku and L band transponders. It was to be stationed at 80 deg E. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 80.01E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day..

2005 June 24 - . 19:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 410-10? (07?).
  • Ekspress AM-3 - . Payload: Ekspress AM. Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Reshetnev; Cannes. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 28707 . COSPAR: 2005-023A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Delayed from April 2005. Satellite built by NPO PM with Alcatel C-, Ku- and L-band transponders.Stationed over 80 deg E longitude. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 139.98E drifting at 0.015W degrees per day..

2008 January 28 - . 00:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M.
  • Ekspress AM-33 - . Mass: 2,579 kg (5,685 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Reshetnev; Cannes. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 32478 . COSPAR: 2008-003A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0300 deg. Period: 1,436.12 min. Summary: Stationed at 96.5 degrees east longitude to provide Internet, video, radio, and data services for at a planned 12 year life. The satellite also was earmarked to provide mobile communications for the Russian president and other top government officials..

2009 February 11 - . 00:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M. LV Configuration: Proton/Briz M s/n P342.
  • Ekspress AM-44 - . Mass: 3,672 kg (8,095 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 33595 . COSPAR: 2009-007A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.
  • Express MD1 - . Mass: 1,140 kg (2,510 lb). Nation: Russia. Manufacturer: Chelomei. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 33596 . COSPAR: 2009-007B. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: C and L-band transponders..

2011 August 17 - . 21:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M. LV Configuration: Proton-M/Briz-M. FAILURE: Cause was a timing error in the inertial platform, leading to incorrect orientiation of the stage during the later burns.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Ekspress AM-4 - . Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 37798 . COSPAR: 2011-045A. Apogee: 20,389 km (12,669 mi). Perigee: 674 km (418 mi). Inclination: 51.1000 deg. Period: 364.70 min. Communications satellite delivered to an incorrect orbit when the Briz-M upper stage malfunctioned. The first two Briz-M burns, to a 173 km x 173 km, and then to a 270 km x 4998 km orbit, were successful. The third burn, at 00:52 GMT on 18 August, seemed to have gone wrong, with early separation of the wrap-around DTB propellant tank. A fourth burn left the payload stranded in a 694 km x 20242 km orbit. Cause was a timing error in the inertial platform, leading to incorrect orientiation of the stage during the later burns.

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