Russian earth land resources satellite. Study 1992.
RKK Energia, relying on their experience with the Progress-M and Gamma spacecraft, conceived a new, nearly 10- metric-ton, sun-synchronous satellite with a variety of Earth observation sensors, including a side-looking radar, a television camera, a video spectrometer, and a scanning radiometer. The scientific payload could reach a mass of 1.4 metric tons with an available power of 2 kW. From an operating altitude of 400 to 800 km, the spacecraft would be able to return data directly or via a relay satellite for a period of 3-5 years. If it had been approved, launch by the Zenit booster would not have come until 1996 or later.
Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
More... - Chronology...
Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...
Associated Launch Vehicles
Energia The Energia-Buran Reusable Space System (MKS) began development in 1976 as a Soviet booster that would exceed the capabilities of the US shuttle system. Following extended development, Energia made two successful flights in 1987-1988. But the Soviet Union was crumbling, and the ambitious plans to build an orbiting defense shield, to renew the ozone layer, dispose of nuclear waste, illuminate polar cities, colonize the moon and Mars, were not to be. Funding dried up and the Energia-Buran program completely disappeared from the government's budget after 1993. More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...
Johnson, Nicholas L; and Rodvold, David M, Europe and Asia in Space 1993-1994, USAF Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM 80907, 1995..
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