Encyclopedia Astronautica
Etalon



etalon.jpg
Etalon
Russian earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1989.01.10 (Cosmos 1989) to 1989.05.31 (Cosmos 2024). Passive geodetic satellites, 1415 kg, 1.294 m in diameter, covered with 306 antenna arrays, each with 14 corner cubes for laser reflection.

Etalon was designed and launched with the primary mission of fully characterizing the earth's gravitational field at the altitude and inclination planned for the Glonass navigation satellites. The satellite was also used to refine understanding of Earth and Moon's gravitational fields, determine the effect of non-gravitational forces on the satellites; acquisition of data to enhance accuracy in identifying and forecasting movements of space apparatus, and for geophysical and geodetic research.

Gross mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb).
Height: 1.29 m (4.25 ft).
Span: 1.29 m (4.25 ft).
First Launch: 1989.01.10.
Last Launch: 1989.05.31.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This improved four stage version uses the Block DM-2 / 11S861 fourth stage, which has its own guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Replaced the original Block DM / 11S86 version from 1982 to 1995. Used for launch of Glonass navigation satellites into medium earth orbit; and launch of Luch, Ekran-M, Potok, Raduga, Gorizont, Raduga-1, Elektro, and Gals communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit. Commercial version with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for Western payloads was dubbed 'Block DM1'. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...
  • Reshetnev Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Reshetnev Design Bureau, Krasnoyarsk-26/Zhelenogorsk, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Kaesmann, Ferdinand, et. al., "Proton - Development of A Russian Launch Vehicle", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 1998, Volume 51, page 3.
  • Johnson, Nicholas L; and Rodvold, David M, Europe and Asia in Space 1993-1994, USAF Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM 80907, 1995..
  • Vladimirov, A, "Tablitsa zapuskov RN 'Proton' i 'Proton K'", Novosti kosmonavtiki, 1998, Issue 10, page 25.
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Etalon Chronology


1989 January 10 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 350-02.
  • Cosmos 1989 - . Payload: Etalon PKA s/n 1L. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Etalon. USAF Sat Cat: 19751 . COSPAR: 1989-001C. Apogee: 19,152 km (11,900 mi). Perigee: 19,097 km (11,866 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.50 min. Summary: Etalon series. Acquisition of data to enhance accuracy in identifying and forecasting movements of space apparatus, and for geophysical and geodetic research. .

1989 May 31 - . 08:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 352-02.
  • Cosmos 2024 - . Payload: Etalon PKA s/n 2L. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Etalon. USAF Sat Cat: 20026 . COSPAR: 1989-039C. Apogee: 19,146 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,095 km (11,865 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 675.40 min. Summary: Etalon series. Acquisition of data to enhance accuracy in identifying and forecasting movements of space apparatus, and for geophysical and geodetic research. .

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