Encyclopedia Astronautica
ETS



ets2.jpg
ETS-2
Credit: NASDA
ets4.jpg
ETS-4
Credit: NASDA
ets6.jpg
ETS-6
Credit: NASDA
Japanese technology satellite. 7 launches, 1975.09.09 (Kiku 1) to 2006.12.16 (Kiku 8).

Japanese Engineering Test Satellite are intended for preliminary experiments for confirmation of the launching technologies, acquiring the satellite tracking and control technologies, and for extension tests of the extendable antennas, measurement of satellite environment, measurement of satellite attitudes, etc.

AKA: Engineering Test Satellite.
First Launch: 1975.09.09.
Last Launch: 2006.12.16.
Number: 7 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Delta The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Development began in 1955 and it continued in service in the 21st Century despite numerous candidate replacements. More...
  • H-2 Heavy lift Japanese indigenous launch vehicle. The original H-2 version was cancelled due to high costs and poor reliability and replaced by the substantially redesigned H-2A.

    3 stage vehicle consisted of 2 x H-II SRB + 1 x H-II stage 1 + 1 x H-II stage 2 More...


Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Delta American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced. More...
  • N-1 Delta Licensed version of Delta built in Japan using both US and Japanese components. 4 stage vehicle. More...
  • N-2 Licensed version of Delta built in Japan using both US and Japanese components. 4 stage vehicle. More...
  • H-1 Japanese license-built version of Delta launch vehicle, with Japanese-developed upper stages. More...
  • H-2 Heavy lift Japanese indigenous launch vehicle. The original H-2 version was cancelled due to high costs and poor reliability and replaced by the substantially redesigned H-2A. More...
  • H-II Japanese orbital launch vehicle. 3 stage vehicle consisted of 2 x H-II SRB boosters + core vehicle. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Tanegashima Japan's main launch site for he larger N and H launch vehicles. In use for sounding rockets from 1967 and orbital launches from 1975. As of 2007 over 140 major launches had been made from the site. More...

ETS Chronology


1975 September 9 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: N-1 Delta. LV Configuration: N-1 N-1(F).
  • Kiku 1 - . Payload: ETS 1 (JETS). Mass: 85 kg (187 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ETS. USAF Sat Cat: 8197 . COSPAR: 1975-082A. Apogee: 1,103 km (685 mi). Perigee: 975 km (605 mi). Inclination: 47.0000 deg. Period: 106.00 min. JETS-1 (Japanese Engineering Test Satellite -1, national name 'Kiku') is intended for preliminary experiments for confirmation of the launching technologies, acquiring the satellite tracking and control technologies, and for extension tests of the extenda ble antennas, measurement of satellite environment, measurement of satellite attitudes, etc. Launch time 0530 GMT.

1977 February 23 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: N-1 Delta. LV Configuration: N-1 N-3(F).
  • Kiku 2 - . Payload: ETS 2. Mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ETS. Completed Operations Date: 1990-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9852 . COSPAR: 1977-014A. Apogee: 35,860 km (22,280 mi). Perigee: 35,854 km (22,278 mi). Inclination: 11.9000 deg. Period: 1,439.70 min. Engineering test satellite. Engineering Test Satellite Type II (ETS II), Kiku 2. Launch by N launch vehicle no 3. Geographical longitude of the geostationary orbit: 130 deg E. Preliminary experiments to acquire technologies to launch,track, and control geostationary satellites. P ropagation experiment of millimetre and quasi-millimetre waves. Characteristics: Weight at launch 245 kg. Configuration: cylindrical. Height 191 cm including antenna. Diameter 141 cm. Attitude control: spin stabilization. Expected life at least 6 months. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 130 deg E in 1977-1990 As of 5 September 2001 located at 16.93 deg E drifting at 0.930 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 85.65W drifting at 0.986W degrees per day.

1981 February 11 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: N-2. LV Configuration: N-2 N-7(F).
  • Kiku 3 - . Payload: ETS 4. Mass: 640 kg (1,410 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ETS. USAF Sat Cat: 12295 . COSPAR: 1981-012A. Apogee: 16,237 km (10,089 mi). Perigee: 305 km (189 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 294.10 min. Kiku 3 (ETS-IV). Launching organization NASDA. Acquisition of the technology to handle a large-scale heavy satellite and test of the functions of on-board equipment and devices, as well as confirmation of the launching capacity of the N-II launch vehicle. Also tested ion thruster.

1982 September 3 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: N-1 Delta. LV Configuration: N-1 N-9(F).
  • Kiku 4 - . Payload: ETS 3. Mass: 385 kg (848 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ETS. USAF Sat Cat: 13492 . COSPAR: 1982-087A. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 988 km (613 mi). Inclination: 44.6000 deg. Period: 105.10 min. Engineering test satellite. Engineering Test Satellite III (ETS-III) launched 0500 GMT 3 Sep 1982 from Osaki launch site, Tanegashima. Launching organization: National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Verification of three axis attitude control function; verification of so lar array paddle deployment function; verification of active thermal control function; functional test of mission equipment in the space. N launch vehicle flight no 9.

1987 August 27 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: H-1. LV Configuration: H-1 H-17(F).
  • Kiku 5 - . Payload: ETS 5. Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ETS. Completed Operations Date: 1997-09-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 18316 . COSPAR: 1987-070A. Apogee: 36,072 km (22,414 mi). Perigee: 36,029 km (22,387 mi). Inclination: 7.9000 deg. Period: 1,449.60 min. Stationed at 150 deg E. ETS-V (Kiku-5). Establishment of basic technology for bus systems needed for 3-axis stabilized geostationary satellites. Accumulation of key technologies required for high performance in the next generation of applications satellites; Experiment of mobile satellite communications for the control of aircrafts over the Pacific Ocean, and for the communication, navigational aid, search and rescue of ships. H-I (3-stage) launch vehicle. Launching organization NASDA. Launch time 0920 GMT. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 150 deg E in 1987-1997 As of 5 September 2001 located at 92.55 deg W drifting at 3.394 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 49.74W drifting at 3.380W degrees per day.

1994 August 28 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima Y. LV Family: H-2. Launch Vehicle: H-II. LV Configuration: H-II H-II-2F. FAILURE: LAPS apogee kick motor failed to ignite. Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Kiku 6 - . Payload: ETS 6. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ETS. USAF Sat Cat: 23230 . COSPAR: 1994-056A. Apogee: 38,677 km (24,032 mi). Perigee: 8,565 km (5,322 mi). Inclination: 13.2300 deg. Period: 861.84 min. Summary: Failed to reach geostationary orbit; Engineering Test Satellite; partial mission success. Also tested ion engines for NSSK..

2006 December 16 - . 06:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima Y. LV Family: H-2. Launch Vehicle: H-IIA 204. LV Configuration: H-IIA 204 H-IIA-11.
  • Kiku 8 - . Payload: ETS-8. Mass: 5,817 kg (12,824 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: JAXA. Manufacturer: Melco. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ETS. USAF Sat Cat: 29656 . COSPAR: 2006-059A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.0500 deg. Period: 1,436.11 min. Engineering Test Satellite-8 was a Japanese prototype/operational demonstration for a number of new technologies: a large satellite bus, large-scale deployable 40-m-span antennae, mobile satellite communications system, mobile satellite digital multimedia broadcasting, and basic positioning using high-accuracy time standard devices. It will be positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 146 degrees East. JAXA developed two portable terrestrial systems to communicate directly with the satellite - a tiny telephone and a portable laptop computer. The satellite was to have a lifetime of ten years. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 145.97E drifting at 0.010W degrees per day.

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