Encyclopedia Astronautica
Freja


Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1992.10.06 (Freja) and (Freja). Freja was designed to image the aurora and measure particles and fields in the upper ionosphere and lower magnetosphere.

The mission continued the investigations begun by its predecessor Viking. Freja was initiated in 1987 when a low-cost launch reservation on a Long March rocket for a small store-and-forward low-orbit communications satellite was cancelled. The total cost of the program through 2 years of operations, excluding instruments, was $19 million. The project was jointly financed by Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany. It made high resolution measurements in the upper ionosphere and lower magnetosphere. Data received at Esrange, Kiruna, Sweden and at the Prince Albert Satellite Station in Canada's Saskatchewan Province.

The spacecraft had a magnesium structure, and a 3-axis magnetometer, sun sensors, and IR earth sensor provided 0.5 deg. attitude knowledge. The satellite was spin stabilized, with its sun-pointing attitude maintained by magnetorquers. Annular solar arrays provided 130 W and recharged NiCd batteries. A 2 W S-band transmitter downlinked at 256 kbps to a 9 m ground-based dish. UHF uplink. The satellite was a prototype development effort.

Payload mass 60 kg and used 81 W. Six radial wire booms (1-15 m) and two stiff radial booms (1-2 m) were used by the experiments. Experiments included:

  • F1 - Electric Fields (Royal Inst. of Technology, Sweden)
  • F2 - Magnetic Fields (APL/JHU)
  • F3C - Cold Plasma (NRC, Canada)
  • F3H - Hot Plasma (Swedish Inst. of Space Physics
  • F4 - Waves (Swedish Inst. of Space Physics
  • F5 - Auroral Imager (Univ. of Calgary)
  • F6 - Electron Beam (Max-Planck Inst. )
  • F7 - Particle Correlator (Max-Planck Inst. )

Gross mass: 259 kg (570 lb).
Height: 1.70 m (5.50 ft).
First Launch: 1992.10.06.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • CZ China's first ICBM, the DF-5, first flew in 1971. It was a two-stage storable-propellant rocket in the same class as the American Titan, the Russian R-36, or the European Ariane. The DF-5 spawned a long series of Long March ("Chang Zheng") CZ-2, CZ-3, and CZ-4 launch vehicles. These used cryogenic engines for upper stages and liquid-propellant strap-on motors to create a family of 12 Long-March rocket configurations capable of placing up to 9,200 kg into orbit. In 2000 China began development of a new generation of expendable launch vehicles using non-toxic, high-performance propellants with supposedly lower operating costs. However these encountered development delays, and it seemed the reliable Long March series of rockets would continue in operational use for nearly fifty years before being replaced. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • CZ Chinese orbital launch vehicle. China's first ICBM, the DF-5, first flew in 1971. It was a two-stage storable-propellant rocket in the same class as the American Titan, the Russian R-36, or the European Ariane. The DF-5 spawned a long series of Long March ("Chang Zheng") CZ-2, CZ-3, and CZ-4 launch vehicles. These used cryogenic engines for upper stages and liquid-propellant strap-on motors to create a family of 12 Long-March rocket configurations capable of placing up to 9,200 kg into orbit. In 2000 China began development of a new generation of expendable launch vehicles using non-toxic, high-performance propellants with supposedly lower operating costs. However these encountered development delays, and it seemed the reliable Long March series of rockets would continue in operational use for nearly fifty years before being replaced. More...
  • CZ-2C Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-2C was the definitive low earth orbit launch vehicle derived from DF-5 ICBM. It became the basis for an entire family of subsequent Long March vehicles. Many adaptive modifications were made to the configuration of the CZ-2A to handle a variety of new satellites and upper stages. The CZ-2C had improved technical performance and payload capacity compared to the CZ-2A, with later versions having a payload capability of 2,800 kg into a 200 km circular orbit. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • SSC Swedish manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Swedish Space Corporation, Sweden. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Jiuquan China's first launch center, also known as Shuang Cheng Tzu. Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre, situated at 100 degrees East, 41 degrees North, is located in the Jiuquan Region, Gansu province, north-western China. It was China's first ballistic missile and satellite launch centre. More...

Freja Chronology


1992 October 6 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-13 (29).
  • Freja - . Payload: FSW-1 4 / Freja. Mass: 259 kg (570 lb). Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Freja. USAF Sat Cat: 22161 . COSPAR: 1992-064A. Apogee: 1,763 km (1,095 mi). Perigee: 590 km (360 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 108.90 min. Ionospheric, auroral, amgnetospheric studies. Freja is a Swedish/German satellite designed for research into the aurora. The satellite was launched piggyback on a Long March 2C (CZ-2C) rocket and weighs 214 kg in orbit. It is a sun-pointing spinner (10 rpm) with a 2.2 m diameter. It will make high re solution measurements in the upper ionosphere and lower magnetosphere. Data will be received at Esrange, Kiruna, Sweden and at the Prince Albert Satellite Station in Canada's Saskatchewan Province. Launch time 0620 UT.
  • Freja - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: PRC. Spacecraft: Freja. USAF Sat Cat: 22161 . COSPAR: 1992-064xx. Apogee: 1,782 km (1,107 mi). Perigee: 521 km (323 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 108.40 min.

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