Encyclopedia Astronautica
FY-1



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Fengyun
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FY-1
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FY-1
Credit: via Chen Lan
Chinese earth weather satellite. 4 launches, 1988.09.06 (FY-1A) to 2002.05.15 (SJ-6A). The Feng Yun 1 meteorological satellites were launched into sun-synchronous 900 km, 99 deg inclination orbits by CZ-4 boosters from Taiyuan.

The major payload was a scanning radiometer with five observation bands in the visible and near infra-red spectra.

The satellite was three-axis stabilized, and employed an X-band data transmitter. Design life was one year. The spacecraft were designed to be comparable to existing international low earth orbit meteorological and remote sensing systems, including APT transmissions in the 137 MHz band. The satellite structure and support systems were created by the Shanghai Satellite Engineering and Research Centre of the China Space Technology Institute. The payload was developed by the Shanghai Technical Physics Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The first two satellites were experimental test systems launched prior to the operational version. They were similar in design, although technical characteristics differed. The height of the 1.4 m x 1.4 m box-shaped spacecraft bus of Feng Yun 1A was increased from 1.2 m to nearly 1.8 m for Feng Yun 1B. Total spacecraft mass increased from 750 kg to about 880 kg. Both satellites were powered by two solar arrays (about 3.5 m long each) with a combined rating of more than 800 W. Nickel-cadmium batteries were used for electrical power storage. Attitude control was maintained by a combination of nitrogen cold gas thrusters and reaction wheels, although both spacecraft suffered serious malfunctions in this system.

Feng Yun 1A was lost after only 38 days, but Feng Yun 1B operated for more than a year. The Feng Yun 1 primary payload consisted of two Very High Resolution Scanning Radiometers (VHRSR) with a combined mass of 95 kg. These optical-mechanical scanners operated at 360 rpm with a 20-cm diameter primary mirror in five spectral bands. The system swath was 2,860 km with a 1.08 km resolution in the High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) mode and 4-km resolution in the Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) mode. The first improved Feng Yun 1C spacecraft was launched in 1999. It carried a 10-channel scanning radiometer with a resolution equal to that of Feng Yun 1A and B. After several years it was announced that China planned to put six meteorological satellites into orbit from 2002 to 2008 to offer comprehensive weather services for the 2008 Olympic Games. This would include Feng Yun 1D to be launched into space by a Long March 4 launch vehicle in June 2002.

AKA: Feng Yun.
Gross mass: 880 kg (1,940 lb).
Height: 1.20 m (3.90 ft).
Span: 1.20 m (3.90 ft).
First Launch: 1988.09.06.
Last Launch: 2002.05.15.
Number: 4 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • CZ China's first ICBM, the DF-5, first flew in 1971. It was a two-stage storable-propellant rocket in the same class as the American Titan, the Russian R-36, or the European Ariane. The DF-5 spawned a long series of Long March ("Chang Zheng") CZ-2, CZ-3, and CZ-4 launch vehicles. These used cryogenic engines for upper stages and liquid-propellant strap-on motors to create a family of 12 Long-March rocket configurations capable of placing up to 9,200 kg into orbit. In 2000 China began development of a new generation of expendable launch vehicles using non-toxic, high-performance propellants with supposedly lower operating costs. However these encountered development delays, and it seemed the reliable Long March series of rockets would continue in operational use for nearly fifty years before being replaced. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • CZ Chinese orbital launch vehicle. China's first ICBM, the DF-5, first flew in 1971. It was a two-stage storable-propellant rocket in the same class as the American Titan, the Russian R-36, or the European Ariane. The DF-5 spawned a long series of Long March ("Chang Zheng") CZ-2, CZ-3, and CZ-4 launch vehicles. These used cryogenic engines for upper stages and liquid-propellant strap-on motors to create a family of 12 Long-March rocket configurations capable of placing up to 9,200 kg into orbit. In 2000 China began development of a new generation of expendable launch vehicles using non-toxic, high-performance propellants with supposedly lower operating costs. However these encountered development delays, and it seemed the reliable Long March series of rockets would continue in operational use for nearly fifty years before being replaced. More...
  • CZ-4A Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-4 was developed and manufactured by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology. Its first stage was essentially the same as that of the CZ-3 and the second stage was identical to that of the CZ-3. The CZ-4's third stage, however, was a development, featuring a thin wall common intertank bulkhead tankage and two-engine cluster with both engines gimbling about two perpendicular axes. The third stage engine cluster connected to the tank aft bulkhead through the engine bay. The CZ-4 had two payload fairing configurations: Type-A and Type-B. The CZ-4 was designed for launching satellites into polar and sun-synchronous orbits. More...
  • CZ-4B Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-4B introduced in 1999 was an improved model of the CZ-4B with an enhanced third stage and fairing. It measured 44.1 metres in length with a first stage thrust of 300 tonnes. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • MAI Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow, Russia. More...
  • CASC Chinese manufacturer of spacecraft. China Aerospace Corporation, China. More...
  • SSERC Chinese manufacturer of spacecraft. Shanghai Satellite Engineering and Research Centre, Shanghai, China. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Johnson, Nicholas L; and Rodvold, David M, Europe and Asia in Space 1993-1994, USAF Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM 80907, 1995..
  • Chen Lan, Dragon in Space, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Wen-Rui Hu, Editor, Space Science in China, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, China, 1997..
  • Chen Shilu, Yan Hui, Cai Yuanli, and Zhu Xiaoping, "Progress and Development of Space Technology in China", Acta Astronautica, Vol 46, No 9, p. 559, 2000. Paper IAA-96-IAA.2.2.05 presented at the 47th IA Congress, Beijing, 1996.
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Taiyuan China's launch site for launch of polar orbiting satellites, also known as Wuzhai. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) is situated in Kelan County, the northwest part of Shanxi Province, 280 km by road from Taiyuan City. More...

FY-1 Chronology


1988 September 6 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Complex: Taiyuan LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-4A. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 4 CZ4-1 (19).
  • FY-1A - . Payload: Feng Yun 1A. Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Technology. Type: Weather technology satellite. Spacecraft: FY-1. USAF Sat Cat: 19467 . COSPAR: 1988-080A. Apogee: 895 km (556 mi). Perigee: 875 km (543 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 102.70 min. Summary: Experimental weather satellite. First use of new launch site and launch vehicle. Failed after 38 days due to problems with attitude control system..

1990 September 3 - . 00:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Complex: Taiyuan LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-4A. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 4 CZ4-2 (24).
  • FY-1B - . Payload: Feng Yun 1B. Mass: 881 kg (1,942 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Technology. Type: Weather technology satellite. Spacecraft: FY-1. USAF Sat Cat: 20788 . COSPAR: 1990-081A. Apogee: 897 km (557 mi). Perigee: 875 km (543 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 102.70 min. Summary: Experimental weather satellite. Operated for over a year..

1999 May 10 - . 01:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Complex: Taiyuan LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-4B. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 4B CZ4B-1 (56).
  • FY-1C - . Payload: Feng Yun 1C. Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Manufacturer: Shanghai Institute of Satellite Engineering. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: FY-1. USAF Sat Cat: 25730 . COSPAR: 1999-025A. Apogee: 880 km (540 mi). Perigee: 846 km (525 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Summary: Operational weather satellite. First launch of stretched CZ-4B booster. After retirement the satellite was destroyed in the first test of the Chinese ASAT weapon on 11 January 2007..

2002 May 15 - . 01:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Complex: Taiyuan LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-4B. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 4B CZ4B-4 (67).
  • Feng Yun 1D - . Mass: 960 kg (2,110 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: FY-1. USAF Sat Cat: 27431 . COSPAR: 2002-024B. Apogee: 873 km (542 mi). Perigee: 850 km (520 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. The second stage separated six minutes after launch, putting the stack on a suborbital trajectory. After a brief coast up to 860 km the third stage fired at around 0200 UTC to circularize the orbit. FY-1D, a 950 kg weather satellite with a 10-channel radiometer, separated from the stack followed by a small adapter. The final stage was left in a slightly lower 812 x 883 km orbit.

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