Encyclopedia Astronautica
Geo-IK



geoik.jpg
Geo-IK
Russian earth geodetic satellite. 14 launches, 1981.01.23 (Geo-IK no. 1) to 1994.11.29 (Geo-IK). Development of a second generation geodetic satellite system began in 1977.

From 1977 to 1978 NIU MO (50-TsNII KS and 29-NII VTS) headed the development effort, with the prime contractor being NPO PM under Reshetnev. The Geo-IK/Musson satellite was used to develop a unified world geodetic data base and geocentric co-ordinate system. It characterized the earth's geoid and gravitational field for navigation systems. Flight trials began in 1981.

GEO-IK was the final KAUR-1 bus spacecraft with 'wrapped' panels on a cylindrical body. While it used the standard pressurized instrument container and gravity-gradient single-axis passive orientation system, it was much heavier than earlier spacecraft, with more elaborate systems and a deployable outer sheath of solar cells. It provided five ways for determining satellites position:

  • Doppler system working at 150 and 400 MHz and providing 3 cm accuracy
  • High intensity lights flashing 3 times per second, allowing precise location by ground observatories
  • Radio transponder working at 5.7/3.4 GHz and providing 5 m accuracy
  • Laser reflectors providing 1.5 m accuracy
  • Radar altimeter working at 9.4 GHz providing 5 m altitude accuracy. This was equipped with a separate autonomous system for accurate pointing.

AKA: Eridan; 11F666; Musson.
Gross mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb).
Height: 3.00 m (9.80 ft).
Span: 2.04 m (6.68 ft).
First Launch: 1981.01.23.
Last Launch: 1994.11.29.
Number: 14 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Tsiklon The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Tsiklon Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...
  • Tsiklon-3 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The Tsyklon 3 was developed in 1970-1977 as a part of a program to reduce the number of Soviet booster types. The first two stages were derived from the 8K68 version of the R-36 ICBM, while the restartable third stage was derived from that of the R-36-O. Compared to the Tsyklon 2, the launch vehicle increased payload to 4 metric tons, provided for completely automated launch operations, and had increased orbital injection accuracy. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • RAKA Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Rosaviakosmos), Moscow, Russia. More...
  • Reshetnev Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Reshetnev Design Bureau, Krasnoyarsk-26/Zhelenogorsk, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Voevodin, Sergey A, "Sergey A. Voevodin's Reports", VSA072 - Space Apparatus, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • "Zapushchen sputnik 'Geo-IK'", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1994, Issue 24, page 23.
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..
  • Golotyuk, S, "Sputnikostroiteli s beregov Yeniseya", Novosti kosmonavtiki, No. 10, 1999, p. 64.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...
  • Plesetsk LC32/1 Tsiklon launch complex. Construction of this highly-automated launch complex for the Tsiklon-3 launch vehicle started in 1970. The complex was designed by the Transmash Design bureau led by Chief Designer V N Solovyev. The complex consisted of two pads. The vehicle was assembled and integrated with its payload in the assembly building. It was then delivered to the launch pad by railway in a horizontal position. A launch pad erector placed the rocket into vertical position. No service tower was needed for the storable-propellant booster. More...
  • Plesetsk LC32/2 Tsiklon launch complex. Construction of this highly-automated launch complex for the Tsiklon-3 launch vehicle started in 1970. The complex was designed by the Transmash Design bureau led by Chief Designer V N Solovyev. The complex consisted of two pads. The vehicle was assembled and integrated with its payload in the assembly building. It was then delivered to the launch pad by railway in a horizontal position. A launch pad erector placed the rocket into vertical position. No service tower was needed for the storable-propellant booster. More...

Geo-IK Chronology


1981 January 23 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Payload shroud failed to separate.. Failed Stage: S.
  • Geo-IK no. 1 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 1. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. Decay Date: 1981-01-23 . COSPAR: F810123A.

1981 September 30 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1312 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 2. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 12879 . COSPAR: 1981-098A. Apogee: 1,503 km (933 mi). Perigee: 1,491 km (926 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 115.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1982 September 24 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1410 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 3. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 13589 . COSPAR: 1982-096A. Apogee: 1,503 km (933 mi). Perigee: 1,492 km (927 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 115.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1983 November 24 - . 12:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1510 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 4. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 14521 . COSPAR: 1983-115A. Apogee: 1,524 km (946 mi). Perigee: 1,480 km (910 mi). Inclination: 73.6000 deg. Period: 116.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1984 August 8 - . 12:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1589 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 5. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 15171 . COSPAR: 1984-084A. Apogee: 1,504 km (934 mi). Perigee: 1,492 km (927 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 115.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1985 June 14 - . 10:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1660 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 6. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 15821 . COSPAR: 1985-047A. Apogee: 1,525 km (947 mi). Perigee: 1,482 km (920 mi). Inclination: 73.6000 deg. Period: 116.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1986 February 11 - . 06:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1732 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 7. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 16593 . COSPAR: 1986-015A. Apogee: 1,525 km (947 mi). Perigee: 1,480 km (910 mi). Inclination: 73.6000 deg. Period: 116.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1986 December 2 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1803 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 8. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 17177 . COSPAR: 1986-094A. Apogee: 1,504 km (934 mi). Perigee: 1,497 km (930 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 116.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1987 February 20 - . 04:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1823 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 9. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. Decay Date: 1987-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 17535 . COSPAR: 1987-020A. Apogee: 1,524 km (946 mi). Perigee: 1,479 km (919 mi). Inclination: 73.6000 deg. Period: 116.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1988 May 30 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1950 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 10. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 19195 . COSPAR: 1988-046A. Apogee: 1,522 km (945 mi). Perigee: 1,484 km (922 mi). Inclination: 73.6000 deg. Period: 116.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1989 August 28 - . 00:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2037 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 11. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 20196 . COSPAR: 1989-068A. Apogee: 1,524 km (946 mi). Perigee: 1,485 km (922 mi). Inclination: 73.6000 deg. Period: 116.10 min. Summary: Investigation of outer space. .

1990 July 30 - . 00:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2088 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 12. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 20720 . COSPAR: 1990-066A. Apogee: 1,524 km (946 mi). Perigee: 1,484 km (922 mi). Inclination: 73.6000 deg. Period: 116.10 min. Summary: Investigation of outer space. .

1992 December 22 - . 12:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2226 - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 13. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 22282 . COSPAR: 1992-092A. Apogee: 1,525 km (947 mi). Perigee: 1,479 km (919 mi). Inclination: 73.6000 deg. Period: 116.00 min. Summary: Investigation of outer space. .

1994 November 29 - . 02:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Geo-IK - . Payload: Geo-IK no. 14. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Geo-IK. USAF Sat Cat: 23411 . COSPAR: 1994-078A. Apogee: 1,526 km (948 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 73.6000 deg. Period: 116.10 min. Summary: Also tested Elekon communcations payload..

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