Encyclopedia Astronautica
GMS



gms.jpg
GMS
Credit: NASA
himawari.jpg
Himawari
Credit: NASDA
Japanese earth weather satellite. 5 launches, 1977.07.14 (Himawari 1) to 1995.03.18 (Himawari 5). The Geostationary Meteorological Satellite series were spin-stabilized satellites.

They were developed to contribute to the improvement of Japan's meteorological services and the development of weather satellite technology.

The satellites consisted of a despun section which held the earth-oriented antennas and a 100-rpm rotating spin section which contained the Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR), electronic devices, etc. They were used for the World Meteorological Organization's World Weather Watch Program which was sustained by five geostationary satellites. Launching organization: National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Function: 1) Observation of meteorological phenomena by the visible and infra-red spin scan radiometer. 2) Collection of weather data from various stations. 3) Distribution of weather data to earth stations. 4) Monitoring of solar particles.

AKA: Geostationary Meteorological Satellite; Himawari.
Gross mass: 746 kg (1,644 lb).
First Launch: 1977.07.14.
Last Launch: 1995.03.18.
Number: 5 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • Star 27 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 27 kN. Apogee motor used on CTS, GMS, BS, GPS, GOES satellites. In Production. Isp=288s. More...

See also
  • Delta The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Development began in 1955 and it continued in service in the 21st Century despite numerous candidate replacements. More...
  • H-2 Heavy lift Japanese indigenous launch vehicle. The original H-2 version was cancelled due to high costs and poor reliability and replaced by the substantially redesigned H-2A.

    3 stage vehicle consisted of 2 x H-II SRB + 1 x H-II stage 1 + 1 x H-II stage 2 More...


Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Delta American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced. More...
  • Delta 2914 American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37E More...
  • N-2 Licensed version of Delta built in Japan using both US and Japanese components. 4 stage vehicle. More...
  • H-1 Japanese license-built version of Delta launch vehicle, with Japanese-developed upper stages. More...
  • H-2 Heavy lift Japanese indigenous launch vehicle. The original H-2 version was cancelled due to high costs and poor reliability and replaced by the substantially redesigned H-2A. More...
  • H-II Japanese orbital launch vehicle. 3 stage vehicle consisted of 2 x H-II SRB boosters + core vehicle. More...
  • Delta 2000 American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 2000 series used Castor 2 strap-ons together with an Extended Long Tank core equipped with the more powerful RS-27 engine. This engine was derived from surplus H-1 engines intended for the Saturn IB booster of the Apollo programme. The Delta P upper stage was built by Douglas and used surplus Apollo lunar module engines from TRW. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Tanegashima Japan's main launch site for he larger N and H launch vehicles. In use for sounding rockets from 1967 and orbital launches from 1975. As of 2007 over 140 major launches had been made from the site. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC17B Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Upgraded over the decades for use with Thor, Delta, Delta II, and Delta III launch vehicles, it remained in use for over half a century. More...

GMS Chronology


1977 July 14 - . 10:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914. LV Configuration: Delta 2914 618/D132.
  • Himawari 1 - . Payload: GMS 1. Mass: 670 kg (1,470 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: GMS. Completed Operations Date: 1989-09-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 10143 . COSPAR: 1977-065A. Apogee: 36,148 km (22,461 mi). Perigee: 36,005 km (22,372 mi). Inclination: 11.1000 deg. Period: 1,451.00 min. Geostationary meteorological satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 140 deg E in 1977-1981; over the Pacific Ocean 160 deg E in 1981-1984; over the Pacific Ocean 140 deg E in 1984; over the Pacific Ocean160 deg E in 1984-1989 As of 29 August 2001 located at 10.47 deg W drifting at 3.675 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 112.63E drifting at 3.690W degrees per day.

1981 August 10 - . 20:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: N-2. LV Configuration: N-2 N-8(F).
  • Himawari 2 - . Payload: GMS 2. Mass: 670 kg (1,470 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: GMS. Completed Operations Date: 1988-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12677 . COSPAR: 1981-076A. Apogee: 36,034 km (22,390 mi). Perigee: 35,943 km (22,333 mi). Inclination: 12.9000 deg. Period: 1,446.40 min. Geostationary meteorological satellite. N launch vehicle flight number 8 (N-II launch vehicle). Launch time 2003 UT. Launching organization: National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Geostationary longitude 140 deg E. Function: 1) Observation of meteorological phenomena by the visible and infra-red spin scan radiometer. 2) Collection of weather data from various stations. 3) Distribution of weather data to earth stations. 4) Monitoring of solar particles. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 160 deg E in 1981; 140 deg E in 1981-1984; 145 deg E in 1984-1985; 120 deg E in 1985-1988 As of 31 August 2001 located at 33.93 deg E drifting at 2.598 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 153.66W drifting at 2.594W degrees per day.

1984 August 2 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: N-2. LV Configuration: N-2 N-13(F).
  • Himawari 3 - . Payload: GMS 3. Mass: 303 kg (668 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: GMS. Completed Operations Date: 1995-06-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 15152 . COSPAR: 1984-080A. Apogee: 35,942 km (22,333 mi). Perigee: 35,877 km (22,292 mi). Inclination: 9.8000 deg. Period: 1,442.40 min. Stationed at 140 deg E; also studied alpha particles, electrons. GMS-3 (Himawari-3). Launch 2030 GMT. Improvement of meteorological observation. Development of meteorological satellite technology. N Launch vehicle flight no 13. Launching organization NASDA. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 140 deg E in 1984-1989; 120 deg E in 1989-1995 As of 28 August 2001 located at 146.92 deg E drifting at 1.558 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 168.90W drifting at 1.566W degrees per day.

1989 September 5 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: H-1. LV Configuration: H-1-6R H-20(F).
  • Himawari 4 - . Payload: GMS 4. Mass: 725 kg (1,598 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: GMS. Completed Operations Date: 2000-02-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 20217 . COSPAR: 1989-070A. Apogee: 36,807 km (22,870 mi). Perigee: 36,410 km (22,620 mi). Inclination: 6.2000 deg. Period: 1,478.30 min. Stationed at 140 deg E. GMS-4 (Himawari-4). Improvement of meteorological observation. Development of meteorological satellite technology. Launch vehicle H-I (H20F). Launching organization NASDA. Launch time 1911 GMT. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 160 deg E in 1989; 140 deg E in 1989-1995; 120 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 126.83 deg E drifting at 10.301 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 71.28W drifting at 10.305W degrees per day.

1995 March 18 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima Y. LV Family: H-2. Launch Vehicle: H-II. LV Configuration: H-II-3F.
  • Himawari 5 - . Payload: GMS 5. Mass: 746 kg (1,644 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: GMS. USAF Sat Cat: 23522 . COSPAR: 1995-011B. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Geostationary Meteorological Satellite; carried search and rescue package. Stationed at 140.2 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 160 deg E in 1995; 140 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 139.99 deg E drifting at 0.028 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 45.88E drifting at 3.134W degrees per day.

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