Encyclopedia Astronautica
HJ-1


Chinese civilian surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 2008.09.06 (Huan Jing-1A) to 2008.09.06 (Huan Jing-1B).

In November 1998 Xu Fuxiang, president of the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) said that China planned to establish a small satellite environmental monitoring and disaster warning network. The constellation of eight advanced satellites, including four 400 kg optical satellites and four 700 kg radar satellites, would orbit in two planes to provide round-the-clock monitoring.

The satellites would each have a three year design life. This constellation would be separate from planned satellite networks for navigation, global positioning, mobile telecommunications and earth observations. The Tsinghua-1 50-kg microsat was the first demonstrator for the constellation. The draft project was reviewed in July 2000 by Chinese government committees and the China Space Science and Technology Corporation. In June 2001 the China National Space Administration announced a search for possible international collaborators in the project. This could take the form for international partners to provide small satellites, instruments, or cash investment.

A prototype of a satellite based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was exhibited in February 2001. The radar had been jointly developed by Institutes 501 and 504 of CASC and the China Academy of Sciences under Program 863, a high-tech development program started in March 1986.

AKA: Disaster Monitoring Constellation.
Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
First Launch: 2008.09.06.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • CZ China's first ICBM, the DF-5, first flew in 1971. It was a two-stage storable-propellant rocket in the same class as the American Titan, the Russian R-36, or the European Ariane. The DF-5 spawned a long series of Long March ("Chang Zheng") CZ-2, CZ-3, and CZ-4 launch vehicles. These used cryogenic engines for upper stages and liquid-propellant strap-on motors to create a family of 12 Long-March rocket configurations capable of placing up to 9,200 kg into orbit. In 2000 China began development of a new generation of expendable launch vehicles using non-toxic, high-performance propellants with supposedly lower operating costs. However these encountered development delays, and it seemed the reliable Long March series of rockets would continue in operational use for nearly fifty years before being replaced. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • CZ Chinese orbital launch vehicle. China's first ICBM, the DF-5, first flew in 1971. It was a two-stage storable-propellant rocket in the same class as the American Titan, the Russian R-36, or the European Ariane. The DF-5 spawned a long series of Long March ("Chang Zheng") CZ-2, CZ-3, and CZ-4 launch vehicles. These used cryogenic engines for upper stages and liquid-propellant strap-on motors to create a family of 12 Long-March rocket configurations capable of placing up to 9,200 kg into orbit. In 2000 China began development of a new generation of expendable launch vehicles using non-toxic, high-performance propellants with supposedly lower operating costs. However these encountered development delays, and it seemed the reliable Long March series of rockets would continue in operational use for nearly fifty years before being replaced. More...
  • CZ-2C Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-2C was the definitive low earth orbit launch vehicle derived from DF-5 ICBM. It became the basis for an entire family of subsequent Long March vehicles. Many adaptive modifications were made to the configuration of the CZ-2A to handle a variety of new satellites and upper stages. The CZ-2C had improved technical performance and payload capacity compared to the CZ-2A, with later versions having a payload capability of 2,800 kg into a 200 km circular orbit. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • CAST Chinese manufacturer of spacecraft. China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing, China. More...

Bibliography
  • Chen Lan, Dragon in Space, Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Taiyuan China's launch site for launch of polar orbiting satellites, also known as Wuzhai. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) is situated in Kelan County, the northwest part of Shanxi Province, 280 km by road from Taiyuan City. More...

HJ-1 Chronology


2008 September 6 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C.
  • Huan Jing-1A - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: HJ-1. USAF Sat Cat: 33320 . COSPAR: 2008-041A. Apogee: 662 km (411 mi). Perigee: 628 km (390 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Summary: 'Environment' satellites that carried visible and infrared sensors..
  • Huan Jing-1B - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: HJ-1. USAF Sat Cat: 33321 . COSPAR: 2008-041B. Apogee: 672 km (417 mi). Perigee: 626 km (388 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.70 min.

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