Encyclopedia Astronautica
HS 376



hs376cut.jpg
HS 376 Cutaway
Credit: Hughes
American communications satellite. 56 launches, 1980.11.15 (SBS 1) to 2003.09.27 (E-Bird). Mass 654 kg at beginning-of-life in geosynchronous orbit. Spin stabilized at 50 rpm by 4 hydrazine thrusters with 136 kg propellant.

Star 30 apogee kick motor. Solar cells mounted on outside of cylindrical satellite body provide 990 W of power and recharge two NiCd batteries. 24 + 6 backup 9 W transmission beams.

Gross mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb).
First Launch: 1980.11.15.
Last Launch: 2003.09.27.
Number: 56 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • Star 30 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-30A. Total impulse 136,455 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.943. Isp=293s. More...

See also
  • Ariane First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Ariane 5 The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000. More...
  • Atlas The Atlas rocket, originally developed as America's first ICBM, was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful medium-lift commercial launch vehicle. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit; the first generations of spy satellites; the first lunar orbiters and landers; the first probes to Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn; and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career. More...
  • CZ China's first ICBM, the DF-5, first flew in 1971. It was a two-stage storable-propellant rocket in the same class as the American Titan, the Russian R-36, or the European Ariane. The DF-5 spawned a long series of Long March ("Chang Zheng") CZ-2, CZ-3, and CZ-4 launch vehicles. These used cryogenic engines for upper stages and liquid-propellant strap-on motors to create a family of 12 Long-March rocket configurations capable of placing up to 9,200 kg into orbit. In 2000 China began development of a new generation of expendable launch vehicles using non-toxic, high-performance propellants with supposedly lower operating costs. However these encountered development delays, and it seemed the reliable Long March series of rockets would continue in operational use for nearly fifty years before being replaced. More...
  • Delta The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Development began in 1955 and it continued in service in the 21st Century despite numerous candidate replacements. More...
  • Shuttle The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Atlas The Atlas rocket, originally developed as America's first ICBM, was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful medium-lift commercial launch vehicle. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit; the first generations of spy satellites; the first lunar orbiters and landers; the first probes to Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn; and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career. More...
  • Delta American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced. More...
  • CZ Chinese orbital launch vehicle. China's first ICBM, the DF-5, first flew in 1971. It was a two-stage storable-propellant rocket in the same class as the American Titan, the Russian R-36, or the European Ariane. The DF-5 spawned a long series of Long March ("Chang Zheng") CZ-2, CZ-3, and CZ-4 launch vehicles. These used cryogenic engines for upper stages and liquid-propellant strap-on motors to create a family of 12 Long-March rocket configurations capable of placing up to 9,200 kg into orbit. In 2000 China began development of a new generation of expendable launch vehicles using non-toxic, high-performance propellants with supposedly lower operating costs. However these encountered development delays, and it seemed the reliable Long March series of rockets would continue in operational use for nearly fifty years before being replaced. More...
  • Ariane French orbital launch vehicle. First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Ariane 2/3 French orbital launch vehicle. Improved version of the Ariane 1. It featured increased thrust first and second stage engines, a 25% stretched third stage, 4 seconds specific impulse improvement in the third stage, a larger internal payload fairing volume, and introduced the Sylda payload carrier for dual payloads. The Ariane 3 version added two solid rocket motor strap-ons. Development was authorised in July 1980 and had a total cost of 144 million 1986 Euros. More...
  • Delta 3910/PAM American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P + 1 x Star 48B More...
  • Shuttle American winged orbital launch vehicle. The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years. Redesign of the shuttle with reliability in mind after the Challenger disaster reduced maximum payload to low earth orbit from 27,850 kg to 24,400 kg. More...
  • Delta 2 7000 American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 7000 series used GEM-40 strap-ons with the Extra Extended Long Tank core, further upgraded with the RS-27A engine. More...
  • Delta 3920/PAM American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B More...
  • CZ-3 Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The Long March 3 was a three-stage launch vehicle designed for delivery of satellites of 1,500 kg mass into geosynchronous transfer orbit. The first and second stages were based on the CZ-2C, and designed and manufactured by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology. The majority of the technology and flight hardware used in the CZ-3 had been qualified and proven on the CZ-2C. The third stage, manufactured by CALT, was equipped with an LOX/LH2 cryogenic engine. Long March 3 was also capable of placing spacecraft into an elliptical or circular low earth orbit and sun synchronous orbit. More...
  • Ariane 3 French orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x PAP solid rocket boosters + Ariane 2 core. More...
  • Delta 4000 American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 4000 series used more powerful Castor 4A strap-ons, but the old Extended Long Tank core with MB-3 engine. Only two of these were launched. More...
  • Delta 2 6000 American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 6000 series used the Castor 4A strap-ons with the ultimate Extra Extended Long Tank core with RS-27 engine. More...
  • Ariane 44LP French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 2 liquid rocket + 2 solid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Delta 6925 American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27+ 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B More...
  • Ariane 44L French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 4 liquid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Delta 4925-8 American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor /MB-3 + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing) More...
  • Delta 6925-8 American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27+ 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing) More...
  • Atlas I American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas I launch vehicle was derived from the Atlas G, and included the same basic vehicle components (Atlas booster and Centaur upper stage). Significant improvements in the guidance and control system were made with an emphasis on replacing analog flight control components with digital units interconnected with a digital data bus. More...
  • Delta 7925 American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B More...
  • Ariane 44P French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 4 solid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Delta 7925-8 American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing) More...
  • Ariane 5 French orbital launch vehicle. The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000. More...
  • Ariane 5G French orbital launch vehicle. Initial version of the Ariane 5, a bit too large for the main commercial geosynchronous communications satellite payloads. More...
  • Delta 7925-9.5 American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.9 m (9.5 foot) diameter fairing) More...
  • Delta 3000 American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 3000 series upgraded the boosters to Castor 4 solid propellant strap-ons, while retaining the Extended Long Tank core with RS-27 engine. The 3910 series used the TRW Lunar Module engine in the second stage, while the 3920 series reintroduced the Aerojet AJ110 Delta engine. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Hughes American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Hughes Aircraft Co. , USA More...

Associated Programs
  • Anik Telecommunications satellite system, act as space repeaters capable of receiving transmissions from earth stations and retransmitting them to other earth stations in Canada. The antenna coverage of the satellite provides the capability of serving virtually all of Canada. Operating entity - Telesat Canada. More...
  • Asiasat AsiaSat is a wholly owned subsidiary of Asia Satellite Telecommunications Holdings Ltd., a company listed on both the Hong Kong (SEHK: 1135HK) and New York (NYSE: SAT) stock exchanges. AsiaSat's two major shareholders are China International Trust and Investment Corporation (CITIC) and Société Européene des Satellites (SES), the operator of EuropeÌs premier ASTRA satellite system. More...
  • BONUM BONUM satellites provide domestic Russian television service for Media Most, a Moscow media enterprise. More...
  • BS Medium-scale broadcasting satellites for experimental purposes and communications to Japanese home islands. More...
  • BSB British Direct broadcasting system. Owner/operator: British Satellite Broadcasting Ltd,. More...
  • Chinastar Zhongxing and Zhongwei (Chinastar) communications satellites were orbited by China Orient Telecommunications Satellite Company, part of the Chinese telecommunications ministry. A combination of indigenous and foreign satellites are used. Zhongxing 1 to 4 were apparently some of the earlier DFH-2 and DFH-3 satellites (although more than four reached geosynchronous orbit). Zhongxing 5 was the former Spacenet 1. More...
  • Morelos Communications satellites launched by the Mexican Secretaria de Comunicaciones y Transportes. Coverage of the national territory with television, radio and telephony signals and data transmission. Later privatised and taken over by Satellites Mexicanos S.A. de C.V. More...
  • Palapa Indonesia's domestic communications satellite system. Palapas, stationed in geosynchronous orbit, provide voice circuits and television to the country's 6000+ inhabited islands. More...
  • SBS Satellite Business Systems communications network. More...
  • Telstar Network of communications satellites, operated by AT&T Skynet, later Loral Skynet, Bedminster. More...
  • Thaicom Thai commercial communications satellite network operated by the Shinawatra Satellite Public Company. More...
  • Thor Comsat The Thor communication satellites are orbited by Telenor of Norway and provide television services to Scandinavia. Thor 1 satellite was originally orbited by British Satellite Broadcasting as Marcopolo 2. It was purchased on orbit in 1992 from BSB. More...
  • Westar The satellites, act as space repeaters capable of receiving transmissions from earth stations and retransmitting them to other earth stations in Canada. The antenna coverage of the satellite provides the capability of serving virtually all of Canada. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Krebs, Gunter, Gunter's Space Page, University of Frankfurt, 1996. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Lockheed Martin Coporation, Atlas Family Fact Sheets, September 1998.. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Kourou After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. More...
  • Xichang China's launch site for geosynchronous orbit launches. Xichang Satellite Launch Centre is situated in Xichang, Sichuan Province, south-western China. The launch pad is at 102.0 degrees East and 28.2 degrees North. The head office of the launch centre is located in Xichang City, about 65 kilometers away. Xichang Airport is 50 km away. A dedicated railway and highway lead directly to the launch site. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC36B Atlas V, Atlas launch complex. Atlas Centaur launch pad, in service from 1964 until the retirement of the launch vehicle. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC17B Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Upgraded over the decades for use with Thor, Delta, Delta II, and Delta III launch vehicles, it remained in use for over half a century. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC39A Shuttle, Saturn V launch complex. LC39A and LC39B, part of the Kennedy Space Center, were built on Merritt Island (north/northwest of the Cape) to support the Saturn V/Apollo lunar landing program. The sites were modified in the last half of the 1970s to support the manned Space Shuttle program. Construction began in December 1963. Complex 39A was completed on 4 October 1965. Complex 39A supported two unmanned and nine manned Saturn V/Apollo missions between 9 November 1967 and 8 December 1972. The site also supported the launch of the Skylab space station on 14 May 1973. Both complexes were modified to support Space Shuttle missions later on. Complex 39A supported the first Space Shuttle launch on 12 April 1981. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC17A Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Pad 17A supported Thor, Delta, and Delta II launches into the 21st Century. More...

HS 376 Chronology


1980 November 15 - . 22:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3910/PAM. LV Configuration: Delta 3910/PAM 636/D153.
  • SBS 1 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SBS. Program: SBS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1990-06-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 12065 . COSPAR: 1980-091A. Apogee: 35,928 km (22,324 mi). Perigee: 35,895 km (22,304 mi). Inclination: 6.1000 deg. Period: 1,442.50 min. Satellite Business Systems. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 100 deg W in 1981-1984; 99 deg W in 1984-1990 As of 4 September 2001 located at 115.72 deg E drifting at 1.627 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 96.16E drifting at 1.647W degrees per day.

1981 September 24 - . 23:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3910/PAM. LV Configuration: Delta 3910/PAM 641/D156.
  • SBS 2 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SBS. Program: SBS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1996-09-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 12855 . COSPAR: 1981-096A. Apogee: 35,854 km (22,278 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 10.1000 deg. Period: 1,437.70 min. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 97 deg W in 1981-1983; 104 deg W in 1983; 97 deg W in 1983-1988; 99 deg W in 1988-1990; 97 deg W in 1990-1994; 71 deg W in 1994-1996 As of 31 August 2001 located at 125.63 deg E drifting at 0.458 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 125.97W drifting at 0.561W degrees per day. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1982 February 26 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3910/PAM. LV Configuration: Delta 3910/PAM 644/D160.
  • Westar 4 - . Mass: 1,072 kg (2,363 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: WUTC. Program: Westar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1991-11-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 13069 . COSPAR: 1982-014A. Apogee: 35,943 km (22,333 mi). Perigee: 35,915 km (22,316 mi). Inclination: 2.0000 deg. Period: 1,443.40 min. TV, telephone. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg W in 1982-1991 As of 2 September 2001 located at 83.31 deg W drifting at 1.825 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 112.98W drifting at 1.830W degrees per day.

1982 June 9 - . 00:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3910/PAM. LV Configuration: Delta 3910/PAM 649/D162.
  • Westar 5 - . Mass: 1,072 kg (2,363 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: WUTC. Program: Westar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1992-05-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 13269 . COSPAR: 1982-058A. Apogee: 36,157 km (22,466 mi). Perigee: 36,017 km (22,379 mi). Inclination: 1.4000 deg. Period: 1,451.50 min. Voice, TV coverage for Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 123 deg W in 1982-1992 As of 5 September 2001 located at 132.07 deg W drifting at 3.816 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 135.75E drifting at 3.802W degrees per day.

1982 August 26 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3920/PAM. LV Configuration: Delta 3920/PAM 651/D164.
  • Anik D1 (Telesat 5) - . Payload: Anik D1. Nation: Canada. Agency: Telesat. Program: Anik. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1991-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13431 . COSPAR: 1982-082A. Apogee: 35,846 km (22,273 mi). Perigee: 35,820 km (22,250 mi). Inclination: 8.0000 deg. Period: 1,438.50 min. Telecommunications. Operating entity Telesat Canada. Longitude 104.5W. Anik D-1 Transmit frequencies (MHz): 3720, 3740, 3760, 3780, 3800, 3820, 3840, 3860, 3880, 3900, 3920, 3940, 3960, 3980, 4000, 4020, 4040, 4060, 4080, 4100, 4120, 4140, 4160, 4180. Power 8.9 watts on each frequency. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 104 deg W in 1982-1991 As of 2 September 2001 located at 94.37 deg E drifting at 0.637 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 52.18E drifting at 0.631W degrees per day.

1982 November 11 - . 12:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-5.
  • SBS 3 - . Payload: SBS 3 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,117 kg (2,462 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SBS. Program: SBS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1995-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 13651 . COSPAR: 1982-110B. Apogee: 35,910 km (22,310 mi). Perigee: 35,855 km (22,279 mi). Inclination: 7.8000 deg. Period: 1,441.00 min. Deployed from STS-5 11 November 1982. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 94 deg W in 1982-1983; 95 deg W in 1983-1993; 74 deg W in 1994-1995 As of 4 September 2001 located at 41.59 deg E drifting at 1.235 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 117.46E drifting at 1.221W degrees per day. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).
  • Anik C3 (Telesat 6) - . Payload: Anik C3 [PAM-D]. Mass: 632 kg (1,393 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: Telesat. Program: Anik. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1997-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 13652 . COSPAR: 1982-110C. Apogee: 35,902 km (22,308 mi). Perigee: 35,871 km (22,289 mi). Inclination: 7.9000 deg. Period: 1,441.20 min. Deployed from STS-5 11 November 1982. Telecommunications, operated by Telesat Canada. Transmit power 11.2 W per frequency at input of transmit antenna (typical saturated carrier). Anik C-3 Transmit frequency (MHz): 11730, 11743, 11791, 11804, 11852 , 11865, 11913, 11926, 11974, 11987, 12035, 12048, 12096, 12109 , 12157, 12170. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 117.5 deg W in 1982-1989; 115 deg W in 1989-1997 As of 5 September 2001 located at 15.95 deg E drifting at 1.305 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 114.85W drifting at 1.353W degrees per day.

1983 June 18 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-7.
  • Anik C2 (Telesat 7) - . Payload: Anik C2 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,238 kg (2,729 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: Telesat. Program: Anik. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1998-01-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 14133 . COSPAR: 1983-059B. Apogee: 36,273 km (22,538 mi). Perigee: 35,949 km (22,337 mi). Inclination: 7.8000 deg. Period: 1,452.70 min. Deployed by STS-7 6/19/83. Telecommunications. Operating entity TELESAT Canada. Longitude 110 W. Transmit power 11.2 W on each frequency. Frequencies 11730, 11743, 11791, 11804, 11852, 11865, 11913, 11926, 11974, 11987, 12035, 12048, 12096, 12109, 12157, 12170 MHz. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 112 deg W in 1983; 105 deg W in 1983-1985; 110 deg W in 1985-1991; 109 deg W in 1991-1993;76 deg W in 1993-1997; 115 deg W in 1997-1998 As of 4 September 2001 located at 113.76 deg E drifting at 4.144 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 68.60E drifting at 4.154W degrees per day.
  • Palapa B1 - . Payload: Palapa B1 [PAM-D. Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Perumtel. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1995-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 14134 . COSPAR: 1983-059C. Apogee: 35,840 km (22,260 mi). Perigee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Inclination: 8.6000 deg. Period: 1,437.90 min. Deployed by STS-7 6/18/83. Palapa B satellites were four times as powerful and twice the size of their predecessors, the Palapa A series. While the A series was designed for domestic/regional communications within Indonesia, the new system also served the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore. Palapa B2 was originally placed into a useless orbit due to malfunctions of its PAM-D upper stage. The Indonesian government claimed $75 million insurance and ordered a replacement (B2P), which was successfully orbited 3 years later. The original B2 was recovered by the STS-51A mission on November 12, 1984 under an arrangement between the satellite's insurers, NASA and Hughes. The satellite was then sold by the insurers to an intermediary company, refurbished, and then resold back to Indonesia following its launch in 1990. Spacecraft: Based on Hughes HS-376 design. Cylindrical structure. Spin stabilised. Hydrazine propulsion system for attitude control, orbit maintenance. Body mounted solar cells provide 1060 W BOL. Despun antenna platform. Payload: Each carried 24 C-band transponders (+6 spares). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 108 deg E in 1983-1990; 118 deg E in 1990-1992; 134 deg E in 1992-1995 As of 1 September 2001 located at 156.84 deg E drifting at 0.192 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 169.93W drifting at 0.283W degrees per day.

1983 June 28 - . 23:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3920/PAM. LV Configuration: Delta 3920/PAM D170.
  • Galaxy 1 - . Payload: HS 376. Mass: 1,218 kg (2,685 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1994-03-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 14158 . COSPAR: 1983-065A. Apogee: 35,841 km (22,270 mi). Perigee: 35,815 km (22,254 mi). Inclination: 6.3000 deg. Period: 1,438.20 min. TV. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 134 deg W in 1983-1991; 133 deg W in 1991-1994 As of 31 August 2001 located at 92.66 deg W drifting at 0.600 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 46.95W drifting at 0.505W degrees per day.

1983 July 28 - . 22:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3920/PAM. LV Configuration: Delta 3920/PAM D171.
  • Telstar 3A - . Payload: Telstar 301 -> Arabsat 1E. Mass: 625 kg (1,377 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ATT. Program: Telstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1996-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 14234 . COSPAR: 1983-077A. Apogee: 36,108 km (22,436 mi). Perigee: 35,885 km (22,297 mi). Inclination: 6.5000 deg. Period: 1,446.80 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 96 deg W in 1983-1985; 105 deg W in 1985; 96 deg W in 1985-1994; 107 deg W in 1994; 20 deg E in 1995-1996 As of 5 September 2001 located at 143.88 deg W drifting at 2.714 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 158.94W drifting at 2.690W degrees per day.

1983 September 22 - . 22:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3920/PAM. LV Configuration: Delta 3920/PAM D173.
  • Galaxy 2 - . Payload: HS 376. Mass: 1,218 kg (2,685 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1994-05-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 14365 . COSPAR: 1983-098A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 74 deg W in 1983-1994 As of 4 September 2001 located at 110.16 deg W drifting at 0.457 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 57.56E drifting at 0.460W degrees per day.

1984 February 3 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle 41-B.
  • Westar 6 - . Payload: Westar 6 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: WUTC. Program: Westar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Decay Date: 1984-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 14688 . COSPAR: 1984-011B. Apogee: 1,220 km (750 mi). Perigee: 307 km (190 mi). Inclination: 27.7000 deg. Period: 100.10 min. Deployed from STS 41B 4 February 1984; failed to reach proper orbit; recovered by STS-51A. The Westar series of geostationary spacecraft provide commercial communications services for Western Union. Westar 6 failed to achieve geosynchronous orbit after being deployed from the Space Shuttle. It was later retrieved by another Shuttle mission (November 14, 1984) and returned for refurbishment and relaunch. All Westars have been launched by NASA on a reimbursable basis. Spacecraft: Westar uses the Hughes HS-376 spacecraft design. Spin stabilised with a despun antenna section. Body mounted solar cells. Once on orbit, an outer cylinder deploys downward in 'dixie-cup' fashion to increase the solar panel area. Payload: Westar spacecraft typically carried 12 to 24 transponders in the 4-6 GHz range. A single antenna reflector (72 inch diameter) is used with an array of offset feed horns. The reflector uses two polarisation-selective surfaces for horizontal and vertical polarised signals.
  • Palapa B2 - . Payload: Palapa B2 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Perumtel. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Decay Date: 1984-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 14692 . COSPAR: 1984-011D. Apogee: 1,190 km (730 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 28.2000 deg. Period: 99.50 min. Summary: Deployed from STS 41B 4 February 1984; failed to reach proper orbit; recovered by STS-51A..

1984 August 30 - . 12:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle 41-D.
  • SBS 4 - . Payload: SBS D / PAM-D. Mass: 1,117 kg (2,462 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SBS. Program: SBS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 15235 . COSPAR: 1984-093B. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 6.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Released from STS 41D 8/31/84; 101 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 101 deg W in 1984-1985; 91 deg W in 1985-1993; 77 deg W in 1993-on. As of 1 September 2001 located at 77.06 deg W drifting at 0.019 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 113.88W drifting at 5.445W degrees per day.
  • Telstar 3C - . Payload: Telstar 302 [PAM-D]. Mass: 625 kg (1,377 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ATT. Program: Telstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1997-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 15237 . COSPAR: 1984-093D. Apogee: 35,948 km (22,337 mi). Perigee: 35,901 km (22,307 mi). Inclination: 5.7000 deg. Period: 1,443.20 min. Released from STS 41D 9/1/84; stationed at 125 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 86 deg W in 1984-1987; 85 deg W in 1987-1997; 97 deg W in 1997 As of 26 August 2001 located at 148.40 deg W drifting at 1.778 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 128.46W drifting at 1.794W degrees per day.

1984 September 21 - . 22:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3920/PAM. LV Configuration: Delta 3920/PAM D176.
  • Galaxy 3 - . Payload: HS 376. Mass: 1,218 kg (2,685 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1995-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 15308 . COSPAR: 1984-101A. Apogee: 35,931 km (22,326 mi). Perigee: 35,885 km (22,297 mi). Inclination: 5.7000 deg. Period: 1,442.30 min. Geostationary at 3.5 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 94 deg W in 1984-1995 As of 1 September 2001 located at 138.23 deg E drifting at 1.543 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 125.04W drifting at 1.587W degrees per day.

1984 November 8 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle 51-A.
  • Anik D2 - . Payload: Anik D2 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: Telesat. Program: Anik. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1995-02-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 15383 . COSPAR: 1984-113B. Apogee: 36,271 km (22,537 mi). Perigee: 36,076 km (22,416 mi). Inclination: 6.7000 deg. Period: 1,455.90 min. Released 9 November 1984 from STS 51A; 82 deg W. Telecommunications. Longitude 111.5 deg W. Operating entity Telesat Canada. Transmitter power 8.9 watts at each frequency. Frequencies 3720 to 4180 MHz spaced by 20 MHz. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 111 deg W in 1984-1986; 110 deg W in 1986-1991; 82 deg W in 1991-1993; 20 deg E in 1993-1995 As of 28 August 2001 located at 178.69 deg W drifting at 4.912 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 25.98W drifting at 4.913W degrees per day.

1985 February 8 - . 23:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3. LV Configuration: Ariane 3 V12.
  • Brasilsat A1 - . Mass: 671 kg (1,479 lb). Nation: Brazil. Agency: Telebras. Program: Brasilsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 15561 . COSPAR: 1985-015B. Apogee: 35,999 km (22,368 mi). Perigee: 35,983 km (22,358 mi). Inclination: 5.9000 deg. Period: 1,446.60 min. Stationed at 65 deg W. Brazilsat 1 & 2 provide telecommunications services to Brazil. Canada's Spar Aerospace was awarded a $125 million contract to build, under license, two satellites based on Hughes' HS-376 design (similar to Anik D). Brazilsat 1 & 2 were the first two elements of Brazil's national Sistema Barasilero de Telecommunicacoes por Satelite (SBTS) network. Spacecraft: Based on Hughes HS-376, single antenna on despun platform, spin stabilised, hydrazine thrusters, body mounted solar cells provide 982 W BOL. Payload: 24 C-band transponders with 6 spares, 10 W TWTA, EIRP >34 dBW over most of Brazilian territory
    Financial/Operational:
    Contract issued in 1990 for 2 units HS-376W. B1-B2 have dedicated transponders for government use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 65 deg W in 1985-1994; 63 deg W in 1994-1996; 79 deg W in 1996-1998; 144 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 143.96 deg W drifting at 0.005 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 145.69E drifting at 2.591W degrees per day.

1985 April 12 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle 51-D.
  • Anik C1 - . Payload: Anik C1 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,238 kg (2,729 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: Telesat. Program: Anik. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 2000-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 15642 . COSPAR: 1985-028B. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Released by STS 51D 4/13/85; 107.5 deg W. Telecommunications. Operating entity TELESAT Canada. Longitude 107.5 W. Transmit power 11.2 W on each frequency. Frequencies 11730, 11743, 11791, 11804, 11852, 11865, 11913, 11926, 11974, 11987, 12035, 12048, 12096, 12109, 12157, 121 70 MHz. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 107 deg W in 1985-1991; 109 deg W in 1991-1993; 72 deg W in 1993-1997; 118 deg W in 1997-1998; 106 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 63.20 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 112.29E drifting at 2.201W degrees per day.

1985 June 17 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle 51-G.
  • Telstar 3D - . Payload: Telstar 303 / PAM-D. Mass: 630 kg (1,380 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ATT. Program: Telstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1999-02-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 15826 . COSPAR: 1985-048D. Apogee: 35,911 km (22,314 mi). Perigee: 35,888 km (22,299 mi). Inclination: 5.4000 deg. Period: 1,441.90 min. Released by STS 51G 19 June 1985; stationed at 76 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 125 deg W in 1985-1992; 123 deg W in 1992-1996; 120 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 31 August 2001 located at 16.95 deg W drifting at 1.400 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 6.47W drifting at 1.400W degrees per day.
  • Morelos 1 - . Payload: Morelos-A / PAM-D. Mass: 512 kg (1,128 lb). Nation: Mexico. Agency: Morelos. Program: Morelos. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1994-03-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 15824 . COSPAR: 1985-048B. Apogee: 36,030 km (22,380 mi). Perigee: 35,999 km (22,368 mi). Inclination: 6.3000 deg. Period: 1,447.80 min. Released by STS 51G 17 June 1985; 113.5 deg W. Coverage of the national territory with television, radio and telephony signals and data transmission. Geostationary satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 113 deg W in 1985-1994 As of 4 September 2001 located at 123.32 deg W drifting at 2.909 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 176.84E drifting at 2.883W degrees per day.

1985 August 27 - . 10:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle 51-I.
  • Aussat A1 - . Payload: Aussat A1 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,260 kg (2,770 lb). Nation: Australia. Agency: Aussat. Program: Aussat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1993-08-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 15993 . COSPAR: 1985-076B. Apogee: 35,934 km (22,328 mi). Perigee: 35,922 km (22,320 mi). Inclination: 7.0000 deg. Period: 1,443.30 min. Released by STS 51I 8/27/85. Aussat A1 was decommissioned in early 1993 at the ned of its nominal life. It is currently in a non-synchronous graveyard orbit.. It spent its active life at 160 deg. E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 160 deg E in 1985-1993 As of 5 September 2001 located at 174.28 deg W drifting at 1.831 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 120.19E drifting at 1.838W degrees per day.

1985 November 27 - . 00:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle 61-B.
  • Aussat A2 - . Payload: Aussat A2 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,259 kg (2,775 lb). Nation: Australia. Agency: Aussat. Program: Aussat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 16275 . COSPAR: 1985-109C. Apogee: 35,886 km (22,298 mi). Perigee: 35,866 km (22,286 mi). Inclination: 6.7000 deg. Period: 1,440.70 min. Released by STS 61B 11/28/85; 156 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 156 deg E in 1985-1993; 164 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 24.67 deg W drifting at 1.153 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 133.30E drifting at 1.163W degrees per day.
  • Morelos 2 - . Payload: Morelos-B / PAM-D. Mass: 645 kg (1,421 lb). Nation: Mexico. Agency: Morelos. Program: Morelos. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 16274 . COSPAR: 1985-109B. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Released by STS 61B 11/27/85. Coverage of the national territory with television, radio and telephony signals and data transmission. Geostationary satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 116 deg W in 1985-1998; 120 deg W in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 120.20 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 148.53W drifting at 2.555W degrees per day.

1986 March 28 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3. LV Configuration: Ariane 3 V17.
  • Brasilsat A2 - . Mass: 1,243 kg (2,740 lb). Nation: Brazil. Agency: Telebras. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Brasilsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 16650 . COSPAR: 1986-026B. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 4.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 105 deg W. Brazilsat 1 & 2 provide telecommunications services to Brazil. Canada's Spar Aerospace was awarded a $125 million contract to build, under license, two satellites based on Hughes' HS-376 design (similar to Anik D). Brazilsat 1 & 2 were the first two elements of Brazil's national Sistema Barasilero de Telecommunicacoes por Satelite (SBTS) network. Spacecraft: Based on Hughes HS-376, single antenna on despun platform, spin stabilised, hydrazine thrusters, body mounted solar cells provide 982 W BOL. Payload: 24 C-band transponders with 6 spares, 10 W TWTA, EIRP >34 dBW over most of Brazilian territory
    Financial/Operational:
    Contract issued in 1990 for 2 units HS-376W. B1-B2 have dedicated transponders for government use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 70 deg W in 1986-1995; 92 deg W in 1995-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 62.91 deg W drifting at 0.007 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 7 located at 32.58W drifting at 2.263W degrees per day.

1987 March 20 - . 22:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3920/PAM. LV Configuration: Delta 3920/PAM D182.
  • Palapa B2P - . Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Perumtel. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1998-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 17706 . COSPAR: 1987-029A. Apogee: 35,906 km (22,310 mi). Perigee: 35,868 km (22,287 mi). Inclination: 5.0000 deg. Period: 1,441.20 min. Stationed at 113 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 113 deg E in 1987-1996; 144 deg E in 1996-1998 As of 28 August 2001 located at 130.30 deg W drifting at 1.327 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 3 located at 141.38E drifting at 1.274W degrees per day.

1987 September 16 - . 00:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3. LV Configuration: Ariane 3 V19.
  • Aussat A3 - . Payload: Aussat K3. Mass: 1,195 kg (2,634 lb). Nation: Australia. Agency: Aussat. Program: Aussat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 18350 . COSPAR: 1987-078A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Australian domestic communications; 164 deg E. Communication satellite. Launching states: Australia and France. Longitude 164 deg E +/- 0.5. (orbit given is geocentric 42164 km, which corresponds to altitude 35787 km). The satellite mass was 655 kg at beginning of life for an Ariane mission only on-station after the apogee motor had fired and station acquisition fuel was expended. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 164 deg E in 1987-1993; 156 deg E in 1993-1995; 152 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 163.96 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 31.52E drifting at 0.011E degrees per day.

1988 September 8 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3. LV Configuration: Ariane 3 V25.
  • SBS 5 - . Mass: 1,241 kg (2,735 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: STLC. Program: SBS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 2000-03-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 19484 . COSPAR: 1988-081B. Apogee: 35,937 km (22,330 mi). Perigee: 35,909 km (22,312 mi). Inclination: 2.0000 deg. Period: 1,443.10 min. Summary: Stationed at 122 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 123 deg W in 1988-2000 As of 5 September 2001 located at 22.98 deg E drifting at 1.728 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 147.52E drifting at 1.709W degrees per day..

1989 August 27 - . 22:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 4925-8. LV Configuration: Delta 4925-8 D187.
  • BSB-1A - . Payload: Marco Polo 1. Mass: 1,233 kg (2,718 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: BSB. Program: BSB. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 20193 . COSPAR: 1989-067A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. British DBS; 31 deg W. Direct broadcasting system. Expected operational life, 10 years. Owner/operator: British Satellite Broadcasting Ltd, The Marcopolo Building, Chelsea Bridge, Queenstown Rd, London SW8 4NQ. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 31 deg W in 1989-1993; 5 deg E in 1994-2000; 13 deg W in 2000. As of 31 August 2001 located at 12.98 deg W drifting at 0.008 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 45.02W drifting at 3.908W degrees per day.

1990 February 22 - . 23:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V36. FAILURE: Exploded 100 seconds after liftoff due to water line blockage. This was caused by a piece of cloth found in the first stage Viking engine water cooling system..
  • BS 2X - . Payload: BS 2X. Nation: USA. Agency: Arianespace. Program: BS. Spacecraft: HS 376. COSPAR: F900222B. Apogee: 9.00 km (5.50 mi).

1990 April 7 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-7 (22).
  • Asiasat 1 - . Mass: 1,442 kg (3,179 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Asiasat. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Asiasat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 20558 . COSPAR: 1990-030A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 2.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. First commercial Chinese launch; Stationed at 105 deg E; formerly Westar 6 (retrieved by STS-51A and refurbished). Fixed-satellite telecommunication services and transmission of television signals. Operational life about 10 years. Orbital position 105.5E. Owner/operator: Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co, Ltd. 23-24/F, East Exchange Tower, 38-40 Leighton Rd, Hong K ong. Telex 68345 ASAT HX Fax 852 576 4111. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 105 deg E in 1990-1999; 122 deg E in 1999-2000. As of 3 September 2001 located at 121.97 deg E drifting at 0.009 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 23.96E drifting at 3.706W degrees per day.

1990 April 13 - . 22:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 6925-8. LV Configuration: Delta 6925-8 D194.
  • Palapa B2R - . Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Perumtel. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 20570 . COSPAR: 1990-034A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Refurbished Palapa B2 retrieved by STS-51A; 107.7 deg E. Communication services for Indonesia, the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), and Papua New Guinea. Launch time 2227:59.719 Z. Launch complex 17, ETR. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 108 deg E in 1990-1999 As of 29 August 2001 located at 42.49 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 163.55E drifting at 2.663W degrees per day.

1990 August 18 - . 00:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 6925. LV Configuration: Delta 6925 D198.
  • Thor 1 / BSB-R2 - . Payload: Marco Polo 2. Mass: 1,220 kg (2,680 lb). Nation: Norway. Agency: BSB. Program: Thor Comsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 20762 . COSPAR: 1990-074A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. UK DBS; 31 deg W. Direct broadcasting system. Expected operational life 12.5 yr. Owner/operator: British Sky Broadcasting Ltd, 6 Centaurs Business Park, Grant Way, Isleworth, Middlesex TW7 5QD. Sold on-orbit in 1992 to Telenor Norway and redesignated Thor 1. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 50 deg W in 1990; 31 deg W in 1991-1992; 1 deg W in 1992-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 0.72 deg W drifting at 0.001 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 61.51W drifting at 3.830W degrees per day.

1990 October 12 - . 22:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V39.
  • SBS 6 - . Mass: 2,478 kg (5,463 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: SBS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 20872 . COSPAR: 1990-091A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 99 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 97 deg W in 1990; 99 deg W in 1991-1994; 95 deg W in 1994-1995; 74 deg W in 1995-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 74.05 deg W drifting at 0.010 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.06W drifting at 0.011W degrees per day.
  • Galaxy 6 - . Payload: Westar 6S. Mass: 1,212 kg (2,672 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 20873 . COSPAR: 1990-091B. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 99 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 91 deg W in 1990-1991; 99 deg W in 1991-1993; 103 deg W in 1993-1994; 74 deg W in 1994-1998; 99 deg W in 1998-1999; 91 deg W in 2000.; 74 deg W in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 73.96 deg W drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 14.62E drifting at 1.829W degrees per day.

1992 March 14 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas I. LV Configuration: Atlas I AC-72 / Centaur I 5052.
  • Galaxy 5 - . Mass: 1,412 kg (3,112 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 21906 . COSPAR: 1992-013A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geostationary at 125 deg W. Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with GCS trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 125 deg W in 1992-2001. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 7.46E drifting at 3.538W degrees per day..

1992 May 14 - . 00:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925. LV Configuration: Delta 7925 D209.
  • Palapa B4 - . Mass: 1,254 kg (2,764 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: PT Telkom. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 21964 . COSPAR: 1992-027A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: Stationed at 118 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 118 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 118.02 deg E drifting at 0.020 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 164.88E drifting at 1.157W degrees per day..

1992 August 22 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas I. LV Configuration: Atlas I AC-71 / Centaur I 5051. FAILURE: Destroyed by range safety. Centaur engine turbopump did not start. Identical to the 18 April 1991 failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Galaxy 1R - . Payload: Galaxy 1R. Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Decay Date: 1992-08-22 . COSPAR: F920822A.

1993 December 18 - . 01:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V62.
  • Thaicom - . Mass: 1,080 kg (2,380 lb). Nation: Thailand. Agency: Shinawat. Program: Thaicom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 22931 . COSPAR: 1993-078B. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 78 deg E in 1994-1997; 120 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 120.00 deg E drifting at 0.017 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 119.92E drifting at 0.025W degrees per day..

1994 February 19 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-8. LV Configuration: Delta 7925-8 D225.
  • Galaxy 1R - . Payload: Galaxy 1RR. Mass: 1,391 kg (3,066 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23016 . COSPAR: 1994-013A. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 133 deg W; replaced Galaxy 1. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 133 deg W in 1994-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 132.97 deg W drifting at 0.005 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 88.88W drifting at 3.795W degrees per day.

1994 July 21 - . 10:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-9 (34).
  • Apstar 1 - . Mass: 1,383 kg (3,048 lb). Nation: China. Agency: APT. Program: Apstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23185 . COSPAR: 1994-043A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.12 min. Summary: Asia-Pacific communications. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 138 deg E in 1994-1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 138.04 deg E drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 141.96E drifting at 0.002W degrees per day..

1994 October 8 - . 01:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V68.
  • Thaicom 2 - . Mass: 1,080 kg (2,380 lb). Nation: Thailand. Agency: Shinawat. Program: Thaicom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23314 . COSPAR: 1994-065B. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. 10 C-band, 2 Ku-band transponders. Stationed at 78.42 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 78 deg E in 1994-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 78.46 deg E drifting at 0.008 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 78.52E drifting at 0.005W degrees per day.

1996 January 12 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V82.
  • Measat 1 - . Mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb). Nation: Malaysia. Agency: Binarian. Program: Measat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23765 . COSPAR: 1996-002B. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geostationary at 91.4E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 91 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 91.49 deg E drifting at 0.012 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 91.50E drifting at 0.009W degrees per day..

1996 July 3 - . 10:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-10 (41).
  • Apstar 1A - . Mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Nation: China. Agency: APT. Program: Apstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23943 . COSPAR: 1996-039A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: 24 C-band transponders; Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 134 deg E in 1996-1999. As of 6 September 2001 located at 134.02 deg E drifting at 0.013 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 129.99E drifting at 0.007E degrees per day..

1996 August 18 - . 10:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-11 (42).
  • Zhongxing 7 - . Payload: Zhongxing 7. Nation: China. Agency: Chinasat. Program: Chinasat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 24282 . COSPAR: 1996-048A. Apogee: 46,499 km (28,893 mi). Perigee: 21,674 km (13,467 mi). Inclination: 26.3000 deg. Period: 1,350.20 min.

1996 November 13 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V92.
  • Measat 2 - . Nation: Malaysia. Agency: Binarian. Program: Measat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 24653 . COSPAR: 1996-063B. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geostationary at 148.0E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 148 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 148.00 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 147.98E drifting at 0.007W degrees per day..

1997 April 16 - . 23:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP V95.
  • BSAT 1a - . Nation: Japan. Agency: BSAT. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: BSAT. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 24769 . COSPAR: 1997-016B. Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: Geosynchronous. Stationed over 110.0E Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 110 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 109.56 deg E drifting at 0.018 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 109.63E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day..

1997 May 20 - . 22:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925. LV Configuration: Delta 7925 D243.
  • Thor 2 - . Payload: Thor 2A. Nation: Norway. Agency: Telenor. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Thor Comsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 24808 . COSPAR: 1997-025A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geosynchronous. Stationed over 0.8W Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 1 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 0.73 deg W drifting at 0.000 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 0.76W drifting at 0.002W degrees per day..

1998 April 28 - . 22:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44P. LV Configuration: Ariane 44P V108.
  • BSAT 1B - . Nation: Japan. Agency: BSAT. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: BSAT. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 25312 . COSPAR: 1998-024B. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: Geostationary at 109.9 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 110 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 109.63 deg E drifting at 0.019 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 109.75E drifting at 0.009W degrees per day..

1998 June 10 - . 00:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-9.5. LV Configuration: Delta 7925-9.5 D258.
  • Thor 3 - . Nation: Norway. Agency: Telenor. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Thor Comsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 25358 . COSPAR: 1998-035A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. The spacecraft was delivered to its final orbit in a complex series of five engine burns by three rocket stages. The Delta's second stage demonstrated its restart capability in 4 burns: Burn 1 placed the rocket and payload into a low circular orbit; Burn 2 raised the apogee to 1400 km; Burn 3 circularised the orbit at 1400 km. The second stage then separated, and Burn 4 lowered the spent stage's perigee to a low altitude to ensure the stage would decay quickly and not add to the space junk already on orbit. Stage 3 burned once to place the payload and its kick motor into a high 1400 km perigee geosynchronous transfer orbit. The Stage 4 Star 30 apogee kick motor circularised the spacecraft's orbit at geostationary altitude. Geostationary at 0.8 degrees W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 1 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 0.83 deg W drifting at 0.000 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 0.85W drifting at 0.002W degrees per day.

1998 October 5 - . 22:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V111.
  • Sirius 3 - . Payload: Sirius 3. Nation: Sweden. Agency: NSAB. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Sirius. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 25492 . COSPAR: 1998-056B. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 23.5 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 28 deg E in 1998-1999; 5 deg E in 2000.- As of 5 September 2001 located at 5.04 deg E drifting at 0.003 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 4.97E drifting at 0.000W degrees per day.

1998 November 22 - . 23:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. Launch Pad: SLC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-9.5. LV Configuration: Delta 7925-9.5 D263.
  • BONUM-1 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Telenor. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: BONUM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 25546 . COSPAR: 1998-068A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. BONUM-1 provided domestic Russian television service for Media Most, a Moscow media enterprise, broadcasting 50 channels to western Russia from a geostationary orbit at 36 degrees E. Mass was 1426 kg at launch, 800 kg of that propellant. BONUM-1 carried 8 Ku-band transponders. The Delta upper stage raised the initial 157 km x 189 km at 29.2 degree parking orbit to 159 km x 1304 km and then 1228 km x 1683 km at 26.7 degrees. A Thiokol Star 48B solid third stage boosted BONUM-1 to a 1285 x 36703 km x 19.5 degree geostationary transfer orbit, with the Thiokol Star 30 apogee kick motor placing the satellite in its final geostationary orbit. After separation of the spacecraft, the Delta made a final depletion burn to lower its orbit to 274 km x 1552 km x 25.6 degree to ensure it would quickly decay and burn up in the atmosphere. Geostationary at 35.9 degrees E. From 8 August 2000 position was 56.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 36 deg E in 1998-1999 55 deg E in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 56.03 deg E drifting at 0.016 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 55.94E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.

2000 December 20 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V138 (508).
  • Astra 2D - . Mass: 1,414 kg (3,117 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 26638 . COSPAR: 2000-081A. Apogee: 35,895 km (22,304 mi). Perigee: 35,886 km (22,298 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,441.41 min. Astra 2D was a Boeing 376HP spin-stabilised satellite, with a dry mass of around 700 kg. It was owned by the Luxembourg-based company SES and was to broadcast to the British Isles. Astra 2D was in a 292 x 35835 km x 2.2 deg transfer orbit on December 22 and was subsequently boosted into geosynchronous orbit by its Star 30 apogee kick motor. The 825 kg (dry mass) satellite carried 16 Ku-band transponders to provide direct-to-home voice, video, and data transmissions to Britain and neighboring countries after parking over 28.2 deg-E longitude. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 28 deg E in 2001 As of 3 September 2001 located at 28.17 deg E drifting at 0.014 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 28.17E drifting at 0.014W degrees per day.

2002 March 29 - . 01:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L-3 V149.
  • Astra 3A - . Mass: 1,495 kg (3,295 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 27399 . COSPAR: 2002-015A. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Communications satellite. Launch delayed from mid-March. After the Ariane third stage reached geostationary transfer orbit, JCSAT 8 separated, followed by the Mini-Spelda adapter, followed by Astra 3A. Astra 3A was a Boeing BSS-376HP, with a mass of 1495 kg full and about 750 kg empty. It joined Luxembourg-based SES Astra's fleet. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 153.96E drifting at 0.004W degrees per day.

2003 September 27 - . 23:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V162 (516).
  • E-Bird - . Payload: BSS-376HP. Mass: 1,525 kg (3,362 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 27948 . COSPAR: 2003-043B. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0500 deg. Period: 1,436.06 min. Last flight of the Ariane 5G. Launch delayed from July 15, August 22 and 28, September 3. The e-Bird was to service high-speed access networks providing both forward and return links via satellite. The spacecraft carried 20 active Ku-band transponders, each powered by a 33-watt traveling wave tube amplifier. The Ku-band transponders were connected to four spot beams that would provide coverage over Europe and Turkey. The spacecraft was to operate at 33 degrees East longitude, and had a contract life of 10 years.

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