Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1947. The MiG I-270 rocketplane began as a post-war copy of the German Ju-248 (Me-263) design. The resulting rocketplane had a more refined aerodynamic form than the Me-263 and lower gross weight.
The I-270 was abandoned in favor of the turbojet-powered MiG-15 in 1947, which had much greater range.
Studies for a copy of the Me-163B rocket fighter were already undertaken by OKB MiG in 1944, using a Soviet engine by Dushkin/Glushko, but no construction was begun before the war ended. Post-war Soviet technical teams discovered the more advanced Ju-248 (Me-263) design, including one prototype airframe, and the decision was made that MiG would copy this design. The resulting rocketplane had a more refined aerodynamic form than the Me-263 and lower gross weight. The first airframe, Zh-1, began glider tests in December 1946, towed by a Tu-2 to its release point. The Zh-2, rocket-powered with a dual thrust RD-2M-3V engine (1650 kgf boost / 400 kgf cruise) first flew in March 1947. However total burn time of the rocket engines was only 255 seconds, and by this time the prototype of the faster and much longer ranged turbojet-powered MiG-15 was nearing completion. Therefore the I-270 was seen as having no military utility and abandoned after the Zh-2 was written off after a hard landing in spring 1947. Maximum speed of the straight-winged, subsonic I-270 would have been 936 km/hr at 15 km altitude, with boost to that altitude in 3.03 minutes.
Crew Size: 1.
More... - Chronology...
Gross mass: 4,120 kg (9,080 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
Height: 8.92 m (29.25 ft).
Span: 7.75 m (25.42 ft).
Thrust: 14.21 kN (3,195 lbf).
Russian Rocketplanes The story of rocketplanes and spaceplanes in the Soviet Union was one of constant setbacks due to internal politics, constant struggle with little result. More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
MiG Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau, Russia. More...
Nitric acid/Kerosene Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Rocket propellant RP-1, or its foreign equivalents, is a straight-run kerosene fraction, which is subjected to further treatment, i.e., acid washing, sulphur dioxide extraction. Thus, unsaturated substances which polymerise in storage are removed, as are sulphur-containing hydrocarbons. More...
Gunston, Bill, The Osprey Encylopedia of Russian Aircraft 1975-1995, Osprey, London, 1995.
1947 March -
- I-270 rocketplane first powered flight. - .
Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: I-270. Studies for a copy of the Me-163B rocket fighter were already undertaken by OKB MiG in 1944. Post-war Soviet technical teams discovered the more advanced Ju-248 (Me-263) design and the decision was made that MiG would copy this design. The first airframe, Zh-1, began glider tests in December 1946. The Zh-2, rocket-powered with a dual thrust engine first flew in March 1947. The I-270 was abandoned after the Zh-2 was written off after a hard landing in spring 1947.
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