Encyclopedia Astronautica

Russian space tug. Study 1999. Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Soyuz. Derived from propulsion module of Yantar spy satellite, over 30 flights to 1998. 50 restarts.

Ikar upper stage upgrades the Soyuz LV, replaces Block L; increased versatility due to capability for 50 restarts. Engine thrusts: 1 x 2943 N + 4 x 110 N + 4 x 52 N + 8 x 5.88 N.

Gross mass: 3,164 kg (6,975 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 820 kg (1,800 lb).
Height: 2.56 m (8.39 ft).
Diameter: 2.72 m (8.92 ft).
Span: 2.72 m (8.92 ft).
Thrust: 2.94 kN (661 lbf).
Specific impulse: 326 s.

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Associated Propellants
  • N2O4/UDMH Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

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