Encyclopedia Astronautica
Insat 2


Indian communications satellite. 5 launches, 1992.07.09 (Insat-2A) to 1999.04.02 (Insat 2E).

INSAT-2 was a multi-purpose satellite design, and it provided the following services: Domestic long-distance telecommunications, meteorological earth observation and data collection services, direct satellite TV broadcasting to community TV receivers in rural and remote areas, radio and TV program distribution, and Satellite Aided Search and Rescue services.

INSAT-2 was maneuvered to its final orbit by firing the satellite's apogee motor in three phases. Subsequently, the deployment of solar array, antennae and the solar sail were carried out and the satellite commissioned after in-orbit checks.

Specifications:

  • Orbit: Geostationary (83 degree E Longitude)
  • Dry Mass: 1,150 kg.
  • Mass of Lift-off: 2,550 kg.
  • Size: Cuboid 1.9 m x 1.77m x 2.4m with solar array on the south and solar sail & boom on the north.
  • Length when fully deployed: 26m
  • Spacecraft Propulsion and Control: 440 N Liquid Apogee Motor with N2O4 (Nitrogen Tetroxide) and MMH (Mono Methyl Hydrazine) for orbit raising, 3-axis body stabilized in orbit using momentum wheels, sensors, solar flap, magnetic torque and sixteen Reaction Control Thrusters of 22 Newton each.
  • Power: Solar array generating 2,050 W. Two 60 Ah Ni-H2 batteries to support full payload operation during eclipse period.
  • Mission life: 12 years.
  • Communication Payload
    • 12 C- band transponders, seven of which had wide beam coverage and five zonal beam coverages.
    • 5 lower extended C-band transponders with zonal beam coverage.
    • All channels provided Edge Of Coverage - Effective Isotopic Radiated Power (EOC-EIRP) of 36 dBW
  • Meteorological Payload
    • Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) with 2 km resolution in visible band and 8 km resolution and water vapor band.
    • Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera operating in visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared band with 1km resolution.

Gross mass: 1,960 kg (4,320 lb).
First Launch: 1992.07.09.
Last Launch: 1999.04.02.
Number: 5 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Ariane First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Ariane French orbital launch vehicle. First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Ariane 44L French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 4 liquid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Ariane 42P French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 2 solid rocket strap-ons. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • ISRO Indian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Indian Space Research Organization, India. More...

Associated Programs
  • Insat Insat (Indian National Satellite System) was a multipurpose satellite system for telecommunications, broadcasting, meteorology and search and rescue services. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kourou After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. More...

Insat 2 Chronology


1992 July 9 - . 22:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V51.
  • Insat-2A - . Payload: Insat 2A. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. USAF Sat Cat: 22027 . COSPAR: 1992-041A. Apogee: 35,839 km (22,269 mi). Perigee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Inclination: 4.1000 deg. Period: 1,437.50 min. Stationed at 74 deg E; also performed communications functions. INSAT-2A is a multi-purpose satellite, and it will provide the following services: Domestic long-distance telecommunications, meteorological earth observation and data collection services, direct satellite TV broadcasting to community TV receivers in rura l and remote areas, radio and TV progamme distribution, and Satellite Aided Search and Rescue services. Geostationary longitude 74 +/0 0.1 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 74 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 48.18 deg E drifting at 0.010 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 5 located at 25.76W drifting at 0.201W degrees per day.

1993 July 22 - . 22:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V58.
  • Insat-2B - . Payload: Insat 2B. Mass: 1,931 kg (4,257 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. USAF Sat Cat: 22724 . COSPAR: 1993-048B. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 93.5 deg E; also acted as communications platform; carried search and rescue package. INSAT-2B is a multi-purpose satellite, and it will provide the following services: Domestic long range communications, meteorological Earth observation and data collection service, Direct satellite TV broadcasting to community TV recievers in rural and re mote areas, Radio and TV programme distribution, satellite aided search and rescue services. Inclination will be reduced to 0.1 deg and maintained. Geostationary longitude 93.5 +/- 0.1 deg E. Launch on Arianespace flight 58. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 93.47 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 63.82W drifting at 1.099W degrees per day.

1995 December 6 - . 23:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V81.
  • Insat 2C - . Payload: Insat 2C. Mass: 2,050 kg (4,510 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. USAF Sat Cat: 23731 . COSPAR: 1995-067B. Apogee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Perigee: 35,755 km (22,217 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: 24 transponders. Stationed at 92.5 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 93.60 deg E drifting at 0.019 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 165.25W drifting at 1.757W degrees per day..

1997 June 3 - . 23:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V97.
  • Insat 2D - . Payload: Insat 2D. Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. Completed Operations Date: 1997-10-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 24820 . COSPAR: 1997-027B. Apogee: 35,859 km (22,281 mi). Perigee: 35,713 km (22,190 mi). Inclination: 0.4000 deg. Period: 1,374.20 min. Summary: Geosynchronous. Stationed over 74.1E Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 72 deg E in 1997 As of 2 September 2001 located at 85.52 deg W drifting at 16.266 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 49.88W drifting at 16.261E degrees per day..

1999 April 2 - . 22:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P. LV Configuration: Ariane 42P-3 V117.
  • Insat 2E - . Payload: Insat 2E. Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. USAF Sat Cat: 25666 . COSPAR: 1999-016A. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. ISRO's Insat 2E was placed in geostationary transfer orbit. The Indian-built satellite carried a C and S band communications package. Stationed at 83 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 83 deg E in 1999. As of 3 September 2001 located at 82.90 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 82.93E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.

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