Encyclopedia Astronautica
International Space Station



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ISS 1996
The Space Shuttle docks with the International Space Station.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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ISS 1993
1993 International Space Station
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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1993 ISS Diagram
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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1993 ISS Cost
1993 International Space Station - ISS Plan. Despite its additional capabilities, the International Space Station's Fiscal 1994-2000 budget was actually lower than for any of the other redesigns. However, the International Space Station assembly sequence will now require another five years beyond the original completion date.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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Space Station Alpha
The "compromise option" eventually chosen by Clinton was Option A.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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Space Station Alpha
Later, additional laboratories and a habitation module could be added to create the complete Option A Space Station shown here.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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1995 ISS Diagram
1995 International Space Station - ISS Plan.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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1994 ISS
1994 International Space Station - ISS Plan. Another view of the International Space Station. Technologically, ISS reversed the continuing trend (since 1986) toward a smaller and less capable Station. The new configuration reintroduced the US laboratory and node module into the design. ISS will have more science racks than Freedom and provide more power for experiments. The total mass in orbit is 370 metric tons, so the International Space Station weighs almost twice as much as Space Station Freedom.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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1993 ISS
1993 International Space Station - ISS Plan. The International Space Station work distribution plan from 1999.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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1994 ISS
1993 International Space Station - ISS Plan. NASA presented Clinton with two final options: the small 4-man US-only "Alpha" Station approved in June or the larger and much more capable 6-crew "Russian Alpha" design shown here. President Clinton chose the latter option, essentially merging the American SS Freedom and Russian "Mir-2" projects into a new International Space Station (ISS).
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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Venturestar/ISS
Venturestar docks to ISS, 1994 Concept. Lockheed-Martin's "Aeroballistic Rocket" spaceplane -- now called Venturestar -- docks with the Space Station. This 1994 illustration shows what the "Alpha" International Space Station would look like, without Russian modules.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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American ISS Segment
Space Transportation & American ISS Segment. Interior of the US laboratory module. The pressurized modules and about 70% of the hardware developed for the old Space Station Freedom project will be adopted for the International Space Station as well.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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ISS Zarya
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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European ISS Contrib
Other European ISS Contributions. ESA will also contribute two Node modules worth $115 million free of charge, in return for receiving a "free" Space Shuttle flight from the Americans to launch the Columbus Orbiting Facility (COF).
Credit: ESA via Marcus Lindroos
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NASA Manned Budget
NASA Manned Spaceflight Budget 1975-2004
Credit: Marcus Lindroos
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ISS
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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ISS
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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Space Station Cost
Annual Cost to first Assembly Flight of the Various US Station Programs. Perhaps the most controversial aspect of the Space Station project has been its cost and the project's opponents and proponents frequently cite various figures to backup their claims. Here is a quick summary of what the project has cost so far.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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Space Station Cost
Space Station - What Does It Cost?. Today, it appears the huge cost of the Space Shuttle (STS) and Space Station (ISS) programs will prevent NASA from doing any other manned space projects such as lunar or Mars missions. The U.S. space budget has been fairly constant since the mid-1970s and is not expected to change in the foreseeable future.
Credit: Marcus Lindroos
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Alpha
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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Alpha
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
American manned space station. Development from 1994. Assembled in orbit from 1998, with completion expected 2010. In 1987-1993 the Russians successfully assembled and operated the 124-metric ton Mir station.

The station's modules were evolved from those of the secret military Almaz station of the 1970s. Mir and its crews whirled round and round the world, through the collapse of the Soviet Union and Russian economic meltdown. By 1993, Russia had acquired unmatched experience in long-duration human flight, but it was apparent that there was no money for the follow-on Mir-2.

At the same time, NASA had scaled down its space station in the seventh redesign in nine years. This more modest station Alpha deleted most of the original science experiments, but would still cost more than Clinton was willing to spend. In October 1993, with the gunfire of the coup attempt outside their windows, NASA negotiators in Moscow agreed to the 'International Space Station' (ISS), a merger of stations Alpha and Mir-2.

President Clinton's endorsement of the new Option A Space Station did little to help the project. In June 1993, a bid in Congress to kill the Station failed by a single vote (215-216). Scientists continued to be critical of the project, saying its benefits were more marginal than ever after the latest redesign and that the Station had lost its political mission following the end of the Cold War.

In September, NASA presented Clinton with two final options: the small 4-man US-only 'Alpha' Station approved in June or the larger and much more capable 6-crew 'Russian Alpha' design. President Clinton chose the latter option, essentially merging the American SS Freedom and Russian 'Mir-2' projects into a new International Space Station (ISS). The President also managed to strike a deal with Congress which established a fixed annual budget of $2.1 billion. The agreement was remarkably successful; the last attempt to cancel the project was rejected in the House of Representatives in 1994. Technologically, ISS reversed the continuing trend (since 1986) toward a smaller and less capable Station. The new configuration reintroduced the US laboratory and node modules into the design. ISS would have more science racks than Freedom and provided more power for experiments. The total mass in orbit was 370 metric tons, so the International Space Station weighed almost twice as much as Space Station Freedom.

A big plus according to NASA was that the Station now could be manned almost immediately, as soon as the Russian FGB and Service Modules had been launched. In contrast, Space Station Freedom would not have been capable of supporting a permanent crew before a dozen or so modules had been launched.

Aerospace mergers plus increased emphasis on commercial space made it easier for the new NASA Administrator, Dan Goldin, to reform the Space Station and NASA in general. The Space Station Program Office in Reston, Virginia was cancelled as NASA selected Boeing (which bought the space divisions of other Station contractors such as McDonnell-Douglas and Rockwell in the 1990s) as the new Station prime contractor. Boeing's contract from 1995 contained less NASA oversight than usual while giving the company and its Space Station 'integrated production teams' some financial rewards in case the projected goals were met. The Johnson Space Center now hosted the Station's new program office. All this greatly simplified the project's cumbersome management structure, although the efforts to avoid cost overruns and delays were not entirely successful.

European Space Agency contributions to the International Space Station program were seriously revised following the restructuring of the European manned spaceflight program in 1991-93. The November 1992 meeting in Granada decided to continue with a scaled back $3-billion Columbus module, but the French managed to force another reassessment in 1995 due to concerns about the US commitment to Space Station Freedom. The overall cost of the revised ESA programs was estimated to be $2 billion lower (at 1991 prices) than the original $10.8 billion projected for 1993-95. From 1993 to 2000, the total was projected to be about $25.7 billion, down from $29.7 billion.

ESA then merged its Columbus and manned space transportation plans into a single effort in 1994, to further reduce the overall cost of the $4.6-billion COF/CTV/ATV program.. In October 1995, ESA finally decided to remain a partner in the ISS project after France, Italy and Germany managed to reach a complicated compromise on what the contributions should be and how much they would cost. The Italians received Ariane-5 and Columbus contracts from France and Germany. The $1.4-billion Columbus Orbiting Facility was also approved. The second major project was the French-led Automated Transfer Vehicle designed to carry 9,000kg of cargo to ISS. It would cost $750 million to develop. The $1.7-billion Crew Transfer Vehicle capsule was however cut from the package, although France received $60 million for CTV studies.

In addition to its other contributions, the ESA Council also approved a 'complementary' ISS Phase 2 program in July 1994 for early development of laboratory and computer support equipment used on the US and Russian ISS segments, before Columbus was launched. Important projects included a computer system and European Remote Arm for the Russian Service Module. When ESA decided not to launch the Columbus Orbiting Facility on its Ariane-5 rocket, it had to reimburse the American's for using the Space Shuttle. As part of a barter deal signed in March 1997, ESA contributed experimental racks and freezer units for the US laboratory. ESA also contributed two Node modules worth $115 million free of charge, in return for receiving a 'free' Space Shuttle flight from the Americans to launch the Columbus Orbiting Facility (COF). The nodes were built by Alenia Spazio and based on the same basic pressurized module as the COF and Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules. One of the nodes carried the International Space Station's environmental control and life-support system and crew quarters since the US habitation module had been postponed due to cost overruns.

Brazil joined the ISS project in 1999. China remained outside the project, pursuing its own independent program. Despite its additional capabilities, the International Space Station's Fiscal 1994-2000 budget was actually lower than for any of the other redesigns. However, the lower cost came at a price since ISS would not be assembled as quickly as the other options. All the other redesigns planned to end the assembly phase by 2001. The International Space Station assembly sequence would now require another five years beyond that.

The ISS removed some of the space transportation burden from the Shuttle's back since the other international partners were to contribute their own rocket. However, ISS was also more challenging because its orbit had to be accessible to rockets launched from Russia's Baikonur spaceport at 45 degrees northern latitude. The greater ISS orbital inclination meant that the Shuttle's net payload was substantially reduced. NASA developed a new super lightweight aluminum-lithium propellant tank to boost the Shuttle's performance while gradually privatizing Space Shuttle management to save money. The pressurized modules and about 70% of the hardware developed for the old Space Station Freedom project were adopted for the International Space Station.

A major concern was whether the Americans would have the nerve to stay the course when inevitable mishaps occurred. The station, like Mir, required constant maintenance. It could not be shut down if America stopped shuttle flights for years as it did after the *Challenger* explosion. Russian engineers calculated that there was a 23% chance that the exposed Service Module would be punctured by orbital debris during the lifetime of the station. Although the alloy and type of construction there would contain any puncture within a 70x70-centimetre panel, they believed an impact on the American section would result in fractures propagating quickly across a 400x400-centimetre area, leading to explosive decompression, an uncontrollable spin and rapid break-up of the station. Fortunately the probability of such an impact was only 2%.

The inevitable mishap occurred in 2003, when the shuttle Columbia disintegrated during reentry. NASA stayed the course, although the shuttle was grounded for 30 months and the ISS assembly schedule delayed by a further five years.

No project better illustrated the roller coaster effect of inconsistent space policies than the International Space Station, which was being assembled by the American, European, Russian, Japanese and Canadian national space agencies. The Space Station program was started, at NASA's urging, by President Reagan in 1984. Reagan wanted to launch a major space project shortly before the elections, since it would create jobs in important states such as California, Texas and Florida. He also wanted to invite other NATO countries to participate in the U.S-led project, since the Soviet Union had been launching international crews to their Salyut space stations since 1971. The new American station would of course be bigger and better, sending a clear signal to the world about American leadership and dominance in space. However, the space station was also going to tie the emerging European and Japanese national space programs closer to the U.S.-led project, thereby preventing those nations from becoming major, independent competitors too. Commercial space was booming and competition from other Western nations had become a major worry for the U.S. aerospace industry. There was considerable commercial interest in the Space Shuttle, and some market analysts felt a space station could be economically important as a research lab or manufacturing centre. The Reagan Administration generally extolled the virtues of free enterprise and small business, and the space station was regarded as an important market for private space investors.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration had its own institutional reasons for wanting a large space station. After the Apollo lunar landings in the late 1960s, the agency had fallen on hard times in the 1970s when the space budget was drastically reduced due to the high cost of the Vietnam War and social programs. NASA was barely able to secure funding for the Space Shuttle in 1972 as Apollo was cancelled. The space agency then had to exist on a virtual shoestring budget throughout the 1970s while struggling to complete the Shuttle development program. But the new Shuttle Transportation System (STS) turned out to be more expensive than expected when it finally became operational in 1982. STS was also unpopular with the Reagan Administration, who disliked the idea of having NASA rather than private industry run a 'national spaceline.' The senior NASA managers thus wanted another program to complement the Shuttle; something that would 'give STS something to do' while showcasing its versatility and usefulness. At the same time, the new project was going to provide much-needed employment for as many NASA centers and aerospace contractors as possible. NASA had been unable to afford hiring new employees for much of the 1970s, and it was hoped that a large space station would persuade more young engineers to join the agency.

Original article by Marcus Lindroos; updated by Mark Wade.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Spacehab American manned space station module. 14 launches, 1993.06.21 (Spacehab SH-01) to 1999.05.27 (Spacehab-DM). Founded by Bob Citron in 1982, Spacehab Inc. was the only entrepreneurial company to successfully develop a commercial manned spaceflight module. More...
  • ISS MPLM American manned space station reusable supply module. Launched and returned to earth, 2001-2011. When the International Space Station (ISS) was redesigned again in 1993, it was decided to expand the original Mini-Pressurized Logistics Module design. More...
  • ISS Columbus Orbiting Facility European manned space station. Launched 2008.02.07. In October 1993, ESA decided to further slash its overall budget by a combined $4.8 billion in 1994-2000. The Columbus space station module survived, but in a reduced form. More...
  • ISS Unity American manned space station. One launch, 1998.10.29, Unity. Unity was the first U.S.-built component of the International Space Station. More...
  • Transhab Module American manned space station module. Cancelled 1998. Cost overruns soon forced NASA to consider other options for the International Space Station's habitation module. The space agency originally intended to use the same 8. More...
  • ISS Zvezda Russian manned space station. One launch, 2000.07.12, Zvezda. The Zvezda service module of the International Space Station had its origins a quarter century before it was launched. More...
  • ISS Quest Joint Airlock American manned space station module. One launch, 2001.07.12. The Quest Joint Airlock was delivered to the ISS by STS-104 and installed onto the Unity module. More...
  • ISS Pirs Russian manned space station module. One launch, 2001.09.14. Russian docking and airlock module for the International Space Station. The Stikovochniy Otsek No. 1 (SO1, Docking Module 1), article 240GK No. More...
  • ISS Destiny American manned space station module. Launched 2001. American ISS module, a cylindrical structure that functioned as a science and technology module and the primary control module for the ISS. More...
  • NASDA Japanese Experiment Module Japanese manned space station module. Launched to ISS in three sections, 2008-2009. The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) has been a rare island of stability in the often tumultuous Space Station program. More...

See also
  • US Space Stations Wernher von Braun brought Noordung's rotating station design with him from Europe. This he popularized in the early 1950's in selling manned space flight to the American public. By the late 1950's von Braun's team favoured the spent-stage concept - which eventually flew as Skylab. By the mid-1960's, NASA was concentrating on modular, purpose-built, zero-G stations. These eventually flew as the International Space Station. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Shuttle American winged orbital launch vehicle. The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years. Redesign of the shuttle with reliability in mind after the Challenger disaster reduced maximum payload to low earth orbit from 27,850 kg to 24,400 kg. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • NASA Report, Together in Orbit: The Origins of International Cooperation in the Space Station, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, NASA Factsheet The International Space Station: An Overview (IS-1999-06-ISS022), Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, NASA Factsheet Flight Control of the ISS: Unity and Zarya (IS-1999-05-ISS023), Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, NASA Factsheet International Space Station: A Construction Site in Orbit(IS-1999-06-ISS013JSC), Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, NASA Factsheet International Space Station Human Research Facility (IS-1998-03-ISS015JSC), Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, ISS Procedures and checklists, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, ISS Procedures Contingency and Emergency Operations, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, ISS EVA Operations, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, ISS Medical Operations, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, ISS Computer Systems, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, ISS Core Program Chart , Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, International Space Station Operations Architecture Study, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Space station: The next logical step(1986), Web Address when accessed: here.

International Space Station Chronology


1985 February - .
1986 October - .
  • DOS-8 major equipment installation complete. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: International Space Station; ISS Zvezda; Mir-2. Summary: DOS-8 serial number 128 was originally designed as the backup to Mir and possibly the core module of Mir-2..

1987 December 14 - .
  • Mir-2 draft project approved - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: International Space Station; ISS Zvezda; Mir-2. The draft project for this greatly expanded station was approved by NPO Energia Chief Semenov on 14 December 1987 and announced to the press as 'Mir-2' in January 1988. The station would be built in a 65 degree orbit and consist mainly of enormous 90 tonne modules. But the first launch, as always, was the DOS 8. Assembly of the station was expected to begin in 1993.

1992 November 24 - .
  • Council of Chief Designers review revised Mir-2 design - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: International Space Station; ISS Zvezda; Mir-2. With abandonment of the Buran shuttle and 37K modules, the Mir-2 design was cut back again. Mir-2 returned to its original planned 65 degree orbit, and would be assembled and flown separately from Mir. It would now consist of the DOS-8 core module, and a cross beam called the NEP (scientific-energy platform). This was equipped with equipment already proven on Mir: MSB retractable solar panels, Sfora thruster packages, small scientific packages as demonstrated on Kvant.The add-on modules now used the Progress-M service module as a tug, and were reduced in size for launch by either the Soyuz or Zenit launch vehicles.

1993 November - .
  • International Space Station - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Mir-2; International Space Station; Space Station Freedom. Cost escalation of the US Space Station Freedom, and financial difficulties in Russia, led to a summer 1993 briefing of NASA by NPO Energia on Mir-2. In November 1993 Freedom, Mir-2, and the European and Japanese modules were incorporated into a single International Space Station.

1995 During the Year - .
  • X-38 development authorised. - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS. Spacecraft: X-38; International Space Station. Summary: When doubts about the availability of Soyuz developed in 1995, NASA proceeded with development of the X-38, a NASA Johnson concept - a smaller version of the X-24 lifting body with a parafoil..

1996 June - .
  • Soyuz TMA, X-38 selected as ISS lifeboat over Alpha Lifeboat - . Nation: Russia. Program: ISS. Spacecraft: Alpha Lifeboat; Soyuz TMA; X-38; International Space Station. Summary: The Alpha lifeboat was based on the Zarya reentry vehicle with a solid retrofire motor and cold gas thruster package. The design was rejected in favor of use of modified Soyuz TM in short term, US X-38 in long term..

1998 January - .
  • Zarya FGB delivered to Baikonur - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: ISS Zarya; International Space Station. Summary: The U.S.-funded and Russian-built Zarya was a U.S. component of the International Space Station..

1998 December 8 - . 22:10 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-88-1 - . Crew: Ross; Newman. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.31 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross; Newman. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-88. Spacecraft: International Space Station. Summary: Began assembly of International Space Station. Connected cables between Zarya and Unity modules..

1998 December 10 - . 20:33 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-88-2 - . Crew: Ross; Newman. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.29 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross; Newman. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-88. Spacecraft: International Space Station. Summary: Continued assembly of International Space Station. Connected cables between Zarya and Unity modules and deployed antennae..

1998 December 13 - . 20:33 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-88-3 - . Crew: Ross; Newman. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.29 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross; Newman. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-88. Spacecraft: International Space Station. Summary: Completed initial assembly of International Space Station. A canvas tool bag was attached to the exterior of Unity to provide tools for future assembly workers. Also disconnected some docking cables, so that Unity and Zarya could no longer undock..

1999 May 30 - . 02:56 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-96-1 - . Crew: Jernigan; Barry. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.33 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Jernigan; Barry. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-96. Spacecraft: International Space Station. Summary: On May 30 at 02:56 GMT Tammy Jernigan and Dan Barry entered the payload bay of space shuttle Discovery from the tunnel adapter hatch. During the space walk they transferred equipment to the exterior of the station..

2000 May 22 - . 01:48 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-101-1 - . Crew: Williams, Jeffrey; Voss. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.29 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Williams, Jeffrey; Voss. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-101. Spacecraft: International Space Station. Summary: The crew reattached the US crane, attached the Russian Strela transfer boom, and replaced a faulty antenna on the Unity node. EVA handrails were fixed to the station exterior for use on later spacewalks..

2000 September 11 - . 04:47 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-106-1 - . Crew: Lu; Malenchenko. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.26 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lu; Malenchenko. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-106. Spacecraft: International Space Station. Summary: Astronauts Lu and Malenchenko made a spacewalk on September 11 beginning at 04:47 GMT. They rode the RMS arm up to Zvezda and began installing cables, reaching a distance of 30 meters from the airlock when installing Zvezda's magnetometer..

2000 October 15 - . 14:27 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-92-1 - . Crew: McArthur; Chiao. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McArthur; Chiao. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-92. Spacecraft: International Space Station. Summary: The astronauts connected cables between Z1 and Unity, relocated the SASA S-band antenna on Z1, and deployed Z1's SGANT Ku-band antenna. They then took the port ETSD (EVA stowage) box from the Spacelab pallet and installed it on Z1..

2000 October 16 - . 14:15 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-92-2 - . Crew: Wisoff; Lopez-Alegria. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.30 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Wisoff; Lopez-Alegria. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-92. Spacecraft: International Space Station. Wakata aboard the shuttle used the RMS arm to unberth the PMA-3 docking unit from the SLP pallet at 16:14 GMT, and docked it to Unity at 17:40 GMT. Wisoff and Lopez-Alegria first unbolted PMA-3 from the SLP and then guided Wakata through the delicate alignment process as PMA-3 was removed from the bay and attached to the Station.

2000 October 17 - . 14:30 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-92-3 - . Crew: McArthur; Chiao. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McArthur; Chiao. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-92. Spacecraft: International Space Station. The astronauts installed two 58 kg DDCU DC-to-DC converter units atop the International Space Station's Z1 Truss. The DDCUs, will convert electricity generated by the solar arrays to be attached during the next shuttle mission. The spacewalkers also completed power cable connections on both the Z1 truss and newly installed docking port, PMA-3. They connected and reconfigured cables to route power from Pressurised Mating Adapter-2 to PMA-3 for the arrival of Endeavour and the STS-97 crew next month. They also attached a second tool storage box on the Z1 truss, providing a place to hold the tools and spacewalking aids for future assembly flights. McArthur stocked the boxes with tools and hardware that had been attached to the Unity module. STS-96 Astronauts Tammy Jernigan and Dan Barry had left the tools on the outside of Unity during a May 1999 spacewalk.

2000 October 18 - . 15:00 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-92-4 - . Crew: Wisoff; Lopez-Alegria. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.29 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Wisoff; Lopez-Alegria. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-92. Spacecraft: International Space Station. Jeff Wisoff and Mike Lopez-Alegria each jetted slowly through space above Discovery's cargo bay, demonstrating the small rescue nitrogen powered SAFER backpack (Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue). This would be used in the future to help a drifting astronaut regain the safety of the spacecraft. Each astronaut performed one 15 meter flight with the SAFER while attached to the shuttle with a long tether. Lopez-Alegria and Wisoff, with Koichi Wakata operating the arm, also completed a series of wrap-up tasks during the EVA. They removed a grapple fixture from the Z1 truss, opened and closed a latch assembly that will hold the solar array truss when it arrives, deployed a tray that will be used to provide power to the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, and tested the manual berthing mechanism latches that will support Destiny. Wisoff opened and closed the latches on the capture assembly for the P6 solar arrays using a pistol grip tool. With it he made more than 125 turns to open the latches, then closed and reopened them. He left the capture latch, called 'the claw,' ready to receive the solar arrays, to be installed by the STS-97 crew. An exercise to test techniques for returning an incapacitated astronaut to the air lock was cancelled because of time constraints.

2000 December 4 - . 18:35 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-97-1 - . Crew: Tanner; Noriega. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.32 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Tanner; Noriega. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-97. Spacecraft: International Space Station. The first STS-97 spacewalk began with airlock depress and hatch open at 1831 GMT on December 3. The suits went to battery power at 1835 GMT and Joe Tanner and Carlos Noriega left the airlock around 1845 GMT. Around 1932 GMT the RMS arm berthed P6 on the Z1 truss, and the astronauts manually latched it in place by 1940 GMT. There were some problems releasing latches on the solar array wings, but the first solar array began to deploy at 0123 GMT on December 4. This was the "starboard" (+X) array, wing SAW-2B. The port (-X) array, SAW-4B, was left undeployed. The astronauts closed the hatch at 0202 GMT on Dec 4 and repressurized at 0209 GMT. The P6 PVR radiator was deployed on the +Y side of the IEA at 0414 GMT on December 4. The SAW-4B wing was deployed starting at 0052 GMT on December 5.

2000 December 5 - . 17:21 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-97-2 - . Crew: Tanner; Noriega. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Tanner; Noriega. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-97. Spacecraft: International Space Station. The spacewalk began on December 5 with depress at 1718 GMT, hatch open around 1719 GMT and battery power at 1721 GMT. Repress was at 2358 GMT. The astronauts connected up P6 to the station, inspected the tension wires on wing 2B, and relocated the S-band antenna to the top of P6. They unlatched the aft TCS radiator, which was deployed sometime early on December 6.

2000 December 7 - . 16:13 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-97-3 - . Crew: Tanner; Noriega. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.22 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Tanner; Noriega. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-97. Spacecraft: International Space Station. Astronauts Noriega and Tanner on December 7 performed EVA-3 to fix the tension in the SAW-2B solar array on the Station. Airlock depress was at 1609 GMT, hatch open at 1610 GMT and battery power at 1613 GMT. The astronauts left the airlock a few minutes later, probably about 1620 GMT. After fixing the solar array they installed the FPPU device to measure plasma conditions near the top of P6 and performed a few other minor tasks. They returned to the airlock at around 2110 GMT, closing the hatch at 2119 and repressurizing at 2122.

2001 February 10 - . 15:50 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-98-1 - . Crew: Jones; Curbeam. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.32 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Jones; Curbeam. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-98. Spacecraft: International Space Station. Tom Jones and Bob Curbeam began the first STS-98 spacewalk from the ODS airlock on Atlantis, supervising the ISS/Destiny assembly operations. The airlock was depressurized at 1544 GMT. PMA-2 was berthed on Z1 at 1650 GMT; Destiny was unberthed from the payload bay at 1735 GMT and docked to Unity at 1900 GMT. At 1935 GMT Curbeam was connecting ammonia coolant lines when a leaking connector sprayed ammonia into space, contaminating his suit. He was ordered to stay in sunlight to bake off the ammonia. At around 2311 GMT the spacewalkers returned to the airlock, closing the hatch at 2318 GMT. A new depressurization for decontamination was begun at 2342 GMT, with the airlock fully depressurized at 2350 GMT. The hatch was then opened and closed quickly at 2351-2352 GMT, to flush the airlock of any ammonia residue. This last event was not counted as an EVA by NASA.

2001 February 12 - . 15:59 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-98-2 - . Crew: Jones; Curbeam. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Jones; Curbeam. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-98. Spacecraft: International Space Station. STS-98 EVA-2 began at 1555 GMT on February 12 with depressurization of the airlock. The astronauts went to battery power at 1559 GMT. The PMA-2 docking port was attached to Destiny at 1728 GMT. The Power Data Grapple Fixture (PDGF) was removed from its location on an adaptive payload carrier on the port side of the payload bay (probably bay 5P) and installed on Destiny. The PDGF will be used by the Station's robot arm, and is an improved grapple fixture with electrical power and data ports. The hatch was closed at 2240 GMT and the airlock was repressurized at 2249 GMT

2001 February 14 - . 14:48 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-98-3 - . Crew: Jones; Curbeam. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.23 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Jones; Curbeam. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-98. Spacecraft: International Space Station. On the third STS-98 EVA the airlock was depressurized at 1443 GMT, with hatch open at around 1445 and battery power at 1448. The spare SASA S-band antenna was unberthed from an adapter beam in the payload bay (around bay 4P?) and installed on Z1. The +X (starboard) TCS radiator on P6, launched on the previous mission, was deployed at 1649 GMT. The astronauts completed the spacewalk with repressurization of the airlock at 2013 GMT

2001 March 11 - . 05:12 GMT - .
  • EVA ISS EO-2-1 - . Crew: Voss; Helms. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.37 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Voss; Helms. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-2. Spacecraft: International Space Station. On March 11 Jim Voss and Susan Helms made a spacewalk from Discovery's airlock. A PAD device used to attach equipment to the RMS arm floated free and Voss retrieved a spare one from Unity, putting the walk behind schedule. The astronauts installed the Lab Cradle Assembly and the Rigid Umbilical on Destiny and disconnected the umbilicals connecting the PMA-3 docking port to Unity. The astronauts then spent two-and-a-half hours back in the depressurized airlock in case their help was needed during the move of PMA-3. Thomas used the RMS arm to unberth PMA-3 from the nadir port on Unity and relocated it to the port port location, freeing up the nadir for the MPLM. The airlock was depressurized at 0508 GMT and repressurized at 1408 GMT.

2001 March 13 - . 05:23 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-102-1 - . Crew: Thomas, Andrew; Richards, Paul. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.26 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Thomas, Andrew; Richards, Paul. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-102. Spacecraft: International Space Station. The airlock was depressurized at 0518 GMT and the hatch opened at 0520 GMT. The astronauts took the External Stowage Platform from the ICC carrier to the port side of the Destiny module, and then installed the spare Pump Flow Control System on it. The ESP was used to store on-orbit-spare equipment. Next they hooked up cables on the robot arm's umbilical, and travelled up to the top of the P6 tower to fix a solar array latch - it just needed a good thump - and inspect the FPP experiment. The astronauts returned to the airlock at 1132 GMT and began repressurizing at 1144 GMT.

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