European gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 2002.10.17. INTEGRAL (INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) was a European (ESA) astrophysics satellite. The four-ton (with fuel) cylindrical (5 m height and 3.
7 m diameter) satellite was equipped with two tons of instruments to monitor gamma rays, x-rays, and visible light--the gamma ray emitters being of primary interest.
The satellite was equipped with the following instruments:
- SPI (SPectrometer on Integral) was a gamma ray spectrometer with a "coded mask" front-plate consisting of 64 transparent and 63 opaque small hexagons arranged in a complex pattern. The shadow provided by the plate was unique to each direction of arrival. Behind this plate at 1.7 m was an array of 19 cryogenic (85° K) germanium detectors of total area 500 cm2, to measure the energy of the incoming photons in the range 20 keV-8 MeV at an accuracy of 0.2% of their energies. The instrument allowed a celestial gamma source to be located at an accuracy of 2° within the field of view of 16°. Most of the mass of the 1.3-ton instrument was intended to shield the detectors from stray radiation. J.-P. Roques of CSER, Toulouse, France and V. Schoenfelder of MPE, Garching, Germany were the Principal Investigators.
- IBIS was a gamma ray imaging telescope providing images in the composite energy range of 15 keV-10 MeV. It consisted of a coded mask front-plate backed up by two layers of pixels. The first layer had 16,384 Cd-Te pixels; immediately behind this was a thicker layer of 4,096 Cs-I pixels to monitor the more energetic photons. It rejected stray contamination by heavy shielding on the sides and bottom. The image resolution was 30 arc-seconds. (Principal Investigators: P. Ubertini, IAS, Rome, Italy; F. Lebrun, CE-Saclay, France; and G. DiCocco, ITESRE, Bologna, Italy.)
JEM-X (Joint European Monitor, X-rays) provided images in the 3-35 keV energy range, at a resolution of three arc-min. This too had a coded mask front-plate backed with a 3.2 m by a detection plane. The detector was a pair of xenon-methane gas chambers, backed up by a 1,000-cm2 grid of position sensing wires which collect the accelerated and cascading photoelectrons. (Principal Investigator: Niels Lund, DSRI, Copenhagen, Denmark.)
- OMC (Optical Monitoring Camera) was intended to image the gamma ray sources in visible light from sources with a magnitude as weak as 19.7. It was a refractor telescope with a 5-cm lens, imaging onto an array of CCDs kept at -80° C. The field of view was 5° x 5° and the resolution was 18 arc-seconds. (Principal Investigator: M. Mas-Hesse, LAEFF-INTA, Madrid, Spain)
First Launch: 2002.10.17.
More... - Chronology...
Number: 1 .
Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...
Associated Launch Vehicles
Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes. More...
Proton-K/17S40 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of Proton using Block DM-5 / 17S40 fourth stage. This stage has a new payload adapter for use with heavier paylods launched into sub-synchronous orbits. Used for launch of Arkon reconnaisance satellite. More...
McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.
NASA Report, Integral: Tracking Extreme Radiation Across the Universe, Web Address when accessed: here.
Associated Launch Sites
Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
2002 October 17 -
04:41 GMT - .
. Launch Complex
: Baikonur LC200/39
. LV Family
. Launch Vehicle
. LV Configuration
: Proton-K/17S40 (DM2) 409-01.
- Integral - .
Mass: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Chelomei. Class: Astronomy. Type: Gamma ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Integral. USAF Sat Cat: 27540 . COSPAR: 2002-048A. Apogee: 153,435 km (95,339 mi). Perigee: 9,283 km (5,768 mi). Inclination: 53.4000 deg. Period: 4,310.60 min. Summary: INTEGRAL (INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) was a European (ESA) astrophysics satellite. The orbit had a very high apogee to escape magnetospheric radiation..
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