Encyclopedia Astronautica
IRS



irs1c.jpg
IRS-1C
Credit: ISRC
irsp6.jpg
IRS
Indian Remote Sensing Satellite. Operational, first launch 1988.03.17. Remote sensing of the Earth for natural resources management applications.

Data from IRS satellites was received and processed by the National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad. The US company SI also received and marketed IRS data worldwide under a commercial contract with the Antrix Corporation of the Indian Department of Space.

IRS-P6 was the tenth satellite of the IRS series, and carried three cameras similar to those of IRS-1C and IRS-1D but with improved spatial resolutions:

  • A high resolution Linear Imaging Self Scanner (LISS-4) operating in three spectral bands in the Visible and Near Infrared Region (VNIR) with 5.8 meter spatial resolution and steerable up to plus/minus 26 deg across track to obtain stereoscopic imagery and achieve five day revisit capability
  • A medium resolution LISS-3 operating in three spectral bands in VNIR and one in Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) band with 23.5 meter spatial resolution
  • An Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) operating in three spectral bands in VNIR and one band in SWIR with 56 meter spatial resolution.

IRS-P6 also carried a Solid State Recorder with a capacity of 120 GigaBits to store the images taken by its cameras, which can be read out later to the ground stations.

Salient Features:

  • Orbit: Circular Polar Sun Synchronous
  • Orbit height: 817 km
  • Orbit inclination: 98.7 deg
  • Orbit period: 101.35 min
  • Number of Orbits per day: 14
  • Local Time of Equator crossing: 10.30 a.m.
  • Repetitivity (LISS-3): 24 days
  • Revisit (LISS-4): 5 days
  • Lift-off Mass: 1360 kg
  • Attitude and Orbit Control: 3-axis body stabilized using Reaction Wheels, Magnetic Torquers and Hydrazine Thrusters
  • Power: Solar Array generating 1250 W, Two 24 Ah Ni-Cd batteries
  • Mission Life: 5 years

Gross mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb).
First Launch: 1988.03.17.
Last Launch: 2011.10.12.
Number: 15 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • PSLV Indian third-generation launch vehicle, large enough to carry polar-orbiting earth resources satellites. More...
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya, in variants with Blocks ML, 2BL, or SO-L third stages according to payload. More...
  • Vostok 8A92M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Second generation space systems required injection of lighter but higher-altitude Meteor and other satellite payloads into sun-synchronous orbits. The 8A92M version was developed for this purpose. First use was the Meteor launch on 29 June 1977. More...
  • PSLV Indian third-generation launch vehicle, large enough to carry polar-orbiting earth resources satellites. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • ISRO Indian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Indian Space Research Organization, India. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
  • Sriharikota India's primary space launch center, located on the east coast of the peninsula with a firing sector over the Bay of Bengal. In use from 1971 to present. More...

IRS Chronology


1988 March 17 - . 06:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • IRS-1A - . Payload: IRS 1A. Mass: 975 kg (2,149 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 18960 . COSPAR: 1988-021A. Apogee: 917 km (569 mi). Perigee: 897 km (557 mi). Inclination: 99.0000 deg. Period: 103.10 min. Indian remote sensing; 1st Soviet commercial launch. Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-1A). Operational remote sensing of the Earth for natural resources management applications. Also registered by the USSR as object no. 2387 in ST/SG/SER.E/182 and orbital parameters 102.7 min, 863 x 917 km x 99.01 deg.

1991 August 29 - . 06:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • IRS-1B - . Payload: IRS 1B. Mass: 980 kg (2,160 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 21688 . COSPAR: 1991-061A. Apogee: 919 km (571 mi). Perigee: 892 km (554 mi). Inclination: 99.0000 deg. Period: 103.10 min. Summary: Remote sensing; launched commercially by USSR. Operational remote sensing satellite for natural resources management. .

1993 September 20 - . 05:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-D1. FAILURE: Software error caused vehicle to go off course.. Failed Stage: G.
  • IRS-1E - . Payload: IRS-1E. Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. COSPAR: F930920A.

1994 October 15 - . 05:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-D2.
  • IRS-P2 - . Mass: 870 kg (1,910 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 23323 . COSPAR: 1994-068A. Apogee: 820 km (500 mi). Perigee: 818 km (508 mi). Inclination: 98.6700 deg. Period: 101.29 min. Summary: Remote sensing; sun-synch orbit..

1995 December 28 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • IRS-1C - . Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 23751 . COSPAR: 1995-072A. Apogee: 820 km (500 mi). Perigee: 819 km (508 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Summary: Indian Remote Sensing Satellite..

1996 March 21 - . 04:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-D3.
  • IRS-P3 - . Mass: 930 kg (2,050 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 23827 . COSPAR: 1996-017A. Apogee: 820 km (500 mi). Perigee: 819 km (508 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Summary: LEO .

1997 September 29 - . 04:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-C1.
  • IRS-1D - . Payload: IRS-P3. Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 24971 . COSPAR: 1997-057A. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 742 km (461 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.50 min.

1999 May 26 - . 06:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-C2.
  • OceanSat 1 (IRS-P4) - . Payload: IRS-P4. Mass: 1,036 kg (2,283 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Sea satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 25758 . COSPAR: 1999-029C. Apogee: 724 km (449 mi). Perigee: 721 km (448 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Summary: Remote sensing satellite with Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) and a Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR).

2003 October 17 - . 04:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-C5.
  • ResourceSat 1 (IRS-P6) - . Mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: IRS. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 28051 . COSPAR: 2003-046A. Apogee: 836 km (519 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.40 min. Summary: The satellite was to replace IRS-1C and IRS-1D, and carried three cameras for remote sensing, the highest resolution one being the 6-meter LISS-4 imager. The sensors were designed for agricultural remote sensing applications..

2005 May 5 - . 04:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota SLP. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-C6.
  • CartoSat 1 - . Payload: IRS-P5. Mass: 1,560 kg (3,430 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 28649 . COSPAR: 2005-017A. Apogee: 623 km (387 mi). Perigee: 620 km (380 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 97.10 min. First launch from new second PSLV pad at Sriharikota. Eleventh satellite in the Indian Remote Sensing satellite series, Cartosat-1 carried two panchromatic cameras, one fore-mounted with a tilt of +26 deg and the other aft-mounted with a tilt of -5 deg from the yaw axis. Together they provided black-and-white stereoscopic pictures in the visible region ( 0.50-0.85 micron) of the electromagnetic spectrum with a spatial resolution of 2.5 metre. The cameras covered a swath of 30 km and a solid state memory recorded up to 120 GB of images for downloading when the satellite passed over the Spacecraft Control Centre at Bangalore or ISTRAC stations at Lucknow, Mauritius, Bears Lake in Russia and Biak in Indonesia. Cartosat 1's sun-synchronous orbit crossed the equator at a local time of 10:30. The spacecraft was 3-axis stabilised using reaction wheels, magnetic torquers and hydrazine thrusters. 1100 W of eectrical power was provided by a 5 sq m solar array and two 24 Ah Ni-Cd batteries. Mission life was 5 years. Launch delayed from February, late April. The multispectral satellite had a 2.5-meter resolution camera.

2007 January 10 - . 04:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-C7.
  • Cartosat-2 - . Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 29710 . COSPAR: 2007-001B. Apogee: 644 km (400 mi). Perigee: 629 km (390 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.40 min. The satellite was the twelfth in the Indian Remote Sensing satellite series and was capable of providing scene-specific spot imagery. The panchromatic camera provided imagery with a spatial resolution of better than one metre and a swath of 9.6 km. Data from the satellite was to be used for detailed mapping.

2008 April 28 - . 03:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV s/n C9.
  • Cartosat 2A - . Mass: 768 kg (1,693 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 32783 . COSPAR: 2008-021A. Apogee: 645 km (400 mi). Perigee: 623 km (387 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.40 min. Summary: Primary payload, an imaging satellite with a spatial resolution of better than one metre and a swath of 9.6 km. Data from the satellite was to be used for detailed mapping..

2010 July 12 - . 03:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV CA. LV Configuration: PSLV CA s/n C-15.
  • Cartosat 2B - . Mass: 694 kg (1,530 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Cartographic satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 36795 . COSPAR: 2010-035A. Apogee: 647 km (402 mi). Perigee: 629 km (390 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.50 min. Summary: Cartography satellite with 0.8 meter resolution..

2011 April 20 - . 04:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV.
  • Resourcesat 2 - . Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: India. Program: IRS. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 37387 . COSPAR: 2011-015A. Apogee: 825 km (512 mi). Perigee: 820 km (500 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Surveillance satellite. Carried the LISS-4 camera, a 6-meter-resolution imager, which was to be used for both military reconnaissance and civilian remote sensing. It also carried the lower resolution LISS-3 (23 m resolution) and AWIFS (56 m resolution), and an AIS Automatic Identification System payload for Comdev of Canada for tracking ships at sea.

2011 October 12 - . 05:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV CA.
  • Megha-Tropique - . Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: India. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 37838 . COSPAR: 2011-058A. Apogee: 868 km (539 mi). Perigee: 853 km (530 mi). Inclination: 20.0000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Summary: Joint Indian-French remote sensing satellite; carried a MADRAS microwave imager, a Saphir water vapor profile instrument, and a ScaRaB radiation budget scanner..

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