Encyclopedia Astronautica
Italsat


Italian communications satellite. 6 launches, 1991.01.15 (Italsat 1) to 2009-04-20.

Italsat was a body stabilized experimental geostationary satellite which provided pre-operational domestic Italian telecommunications services in the 20/30 GHz bands.

Gross mass: 1,865 kg (4,111 lb).
First Launch: 1991.01.15.
Last Launch: 2009.04.20.
Number: 6 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Ariane First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Ariane 5 The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Ariane French orbital launch vehicle. First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Ariane 44L French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 4 liquid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Ariane 5 French orbital launch vehicle. The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000. More...
  • Ariane 5G French orbital launch vehicle. Initial version of the Ariane 5, a bit too large for the main commercial geosynchronous communications satellite payloads. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Telespazio Italian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Telespazio, Italy. More...

Associated Programs
  • Eutelsat EUTELSAT regional geostationary telecommunication satellite for European countries. Operated by the EUTELSAT organization. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • National Space Science Center Planetary Page, As of 19 February 1999.. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kourou After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. More...

Italsat Chronology


1991 January 15 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V41.
  • Italsat 1 - . Mass: 1,865 kg (4,111 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: ASI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Italsat. USAF Sat Cat: 21055 . COSPAR: 1991-003A. Apogee: 35,919 km (22,318 mi). Perigee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Inclination: 4.2000 deg. Period: 1,440.20 min. Experimental commsat; 13.2 deg E. ITALSAT is a body stabilized geostationary satellite and it is proposed to provide pre-operational domestic telecommunications services on the 20/30 GHz bands. Geographic longitude 13.2 deg E. Longitudinal tolerance +/- 0.1 deg. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 13 deg E in 1991-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 144.14 deg E drifting at 1.021 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 86.26E drifting at 1.156W degrees per day.

1996 August 8 - . 22:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L-3 V90.
  • Italsat F2 - . Nation: Italy. Agency: ASI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Italsat. USAF Sat Cat: 24208 . COSPAR: 1996-044A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 13 deg E in 1996-1998; 16 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 16.38 deg E drifting at 0.010 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 94.10W drifting at 1.863E degrees per day..

2001 February 7 - . 23:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L-3 V139.
  • Sicral - . Payload: Sicral 1. Mass: 2,596 kg (5,723 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: ADI. Manufacturer: Alenia. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Italsat. USAF Sat Cat: 26694 . COSPAR: 2001-005A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Sicral, (Sistema Italiana de Communicazione Riservente Allarmi) was a communications satellite for the Italian defense ministry's procurement division, the Segretariato Generale della Difesa's Direzione Nazionale degli Armamenti. Sicral was built by Alenia Aerospazio and derived from the Italsat series. Its mass was 2596 kg full, 1253 kg dry and it carried a liquid apogee engine. The 3.3 kW, 3.4 m x 4.9 m, triaxially-stabilized spacecraft carried a total of nine transponders in the SHF-, UHF-, and EHF-bands to enable secure communications after parking over 16.2 deg-E longitude. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 16 deg E in 2001 As of 26 August 2001 located at 16.27 deg E drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 16.34E drifting at 0.018E degrees per day.

2001 July 12 - . 21:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V142 (510).
  • Artemis - . Mass: 3,105 kg (6,845 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Alenia. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Italsat. USAF Sat Cat: 26863 . COSPAR: 2001-029A. Apogee: 32,586 km (20,247 mi). Perigee: 32,451 km (20,164 mi). Inclination: 1.1000 deg. Period: 1,272.40 min. Artemis was a European Space Agency satellite designed to test new communications technologies. The Ariane 510 vehicle failed to reach its correct orbit. The solid boosters and main stage worked as planned and put the EPS upper stage in the planned near-suborbital trajectory. The EPS stage then fired but the Aestus engine failed to reach full thrust and cut off 1 minute early. Instead of the planned 858 x 35853 km orbit, only a 592 x 17528 km orbit was reached. The 3.1 tonne (with fuel), 2.5 kW spacecraft carried two pairs of ion engines and had adequate xenon propellant for those engines to reach geosynchronous altitude. This was the first ever rescue of a satellite mission using electric propulsion. The satellite reached its operational orbit in 31 January 2003.using the four German RITA electric xenon thrusters. Artemis could then function as originally planned, as there remained sufficient chemical propellant for 10 years’ operation. Artemis was to provide voice and data communications between mobile phones in Europe and North America, and act as a relay satellite between low-Earth orbiters and ground stations. Eventually, as part of the planned EGNOS system (to be operational by about 2010) it was to provide navigation/location determination as an independent European counterpart to the GPS and GLONASS fleets. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 21.40E drifting at 0.001W degrees per day.

2002 August 28 - . 22:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V155 (513).
  • Atlantic Bird 1 - . Mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Alenia. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Italsat. USAF Sat Cat: 27508 . COSPAR: 2002-040A. Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Launch delayed from August 27. Atlantic Bird was a European (EUTELSAT) geostationary communications spacecraft. The 2.7-ton (1550 kg dry with 1150 propellant), 5 kW satellite was to provide voice, video, and Internet services to Europe and the eastern part of America through its 24 transponders after being parked over 12.5° W. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 12.49W drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.

2009 April 20 - . 08:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiritimati. Launch Pad: 0.0 N x 154.0 W. Launch Platform: Odyssey. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3SL.
  • Sicral 1B - . Payload: Italsat-3000. Mass: 3,038 kg (6,697 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: SeaLaunch. Spacecraft: Italsat. USAF Sat Cat: 34810 . COSPAR: 2009-020A. Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Summary: Second Italian military communications satellite. Dry mass 1680 kg..

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