Encyclopedia Astronautica
ITOS



tirosots.jpg
Tiros-OTS
Credit: NASA
American earth weather satellite. 8 launches, 1970.01.23 (ITOS 1) to 1976.07.29 (NOAA 5). ITOS was the follow-on to the TIROS series of polar-orbiting US weather satellites, and marked the beginning of the use of the NOAA designator.

The program was initially managed by the ESSA (Environmental Science Services Administration). NOAA later became the managing organization. The spacecraft was 3-axis stabilized. Two deployed solar panels recharged NiCd batteries. The payloads included the AVCS (Advanced Vidicon Camera System). APT (Automatic Picture Transmission system), FPR (Flat Plate Radiometer), SPM (Solar Proton Monitor), VTPR (Vertical Temperature Profile Radiometer), and VHRR (Very High Resolution Radiometer). ITOS-1, ITOS-A, and ITOS-B carried AVCS, APT, FPR, SPM. ITOS-D, ITOS-E, ITOS-F, ITOS-G, and ITOS-H carried FPR, SPM, VTPR, VHRR.

AKA: Improved TIROS Operational System.
Gross mass: 330 kg (720 lb).
Height: 1.22 m (4.00 ft).
Span: 4.30 m (14.10 ft).
First Launch: 1970.01.23.
Last Launch: 1976.07.29.
Number: 8 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Delta The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Development began in 1955 and it continued in service in the 21st Century despite numerous candidate replacements. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Delta American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced. More...
  • Delta N American orbital launch vehicle. Long Tank Thor augmented with 3 Castor 2 boosters and Delta E upper stage. More...
  • Delta N6 American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 6 x Castor 2 + 1 x LT Thor DSV-2L-1C + 1 x Delta E More...
  • Delta 0300 American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor 2 + 1 x LT Thor DSV-2L-1C + 1 x DSV-3N-4 More...
  • Delta 2310 American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 More...
  • Delta 0100 American orbital launch vehicle. The military Thor-Delta vehicles were developed into the first of a series of commercial satellite launch vehicles. The Delta 0100 series featured Castor 2 solid propellant strap-ons and a Long Tank Thor core with MB-3 engine. More...
  • Delta 2000 American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 2000 series used Castor 2 strap-ons together with an Extended Long Tank core equipped with the more powerful RS-27 engine. This engine was derived from surplus H-1 engines intended for the Saturn IB booster of the Apollo programme. The Delta P upper stage was built by Douglas and used surplus Apollo lunar module engines from TRW. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...
  • ESSA American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Environmental Science Services Administration, USA. More...
  • NOAA American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA. More...
  • RCA American manufacturer of spacecraft. RCA, USA. More...

Associated Programs
  • Tiros TIROS spacecraft were the beginning of a long series of polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. TIROS was followed by the TOS (TIROS Operational System) series, and then the ITOS (Improved TIROS) series, and later the NOAA series. TIROS spacecraft were developed by GSFC and managed by ESSA (Environmental Science Services Administration). The objective was to establish a global weather satellite system. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Bramscher, Robert G, "A Survey of Launch Vehicle Failures", Spaceflight, 1980, Volume 22, page 351.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Vandenberg Vandenberg Air Force Base is located on the Central Coast of California about 240 km northwest of Los Angeles. It is used for launches of unmanned government and commercial satellites into polar orbit and intercontinental ballistic missile test launches toward the Kwajalein Atoll. More...
  • Vandenberg SLC2E Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a space launch complex in 1966. More...
  • Vandenberg SLC2W Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a space launch complex in 1966. More...

ITOS Chronology


1970 January 23 - . 11:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta N6. LV Configuration: Thor Delta N6 542/D76.
  • ITOS 1 - . Payload: Tiros M. Mass: 309 kg (681 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: ITOS. USAF Sat Cat: 4320 . COSPAR: 1970-008A. Apogee: 1,479 km (919 mi). Perigee: 1,434 km (891 mi). Inclination: 101.8000 deg. Period: 115.00 min. Summary: Improved TIROS Operational Satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1970 December 11 - . 11:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta N6. LV Configuration: Thor Delta N6 546/D81.
  • NOAA 1 - . Payload: ITOS A. Mass: 306 kg (674 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: ITOS. USAF Sat Cat: 4793 . COSPAR: 1970-106A. Apogee: 1,473 km (915 mi). Perigee: 1,423 km (884 mi). Inclination: 101.7000 deg. Period: 114.80 min. Summary: Built for NASA; operated by NOAA. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1971 October 21 - . 11:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta N6. LV Configuration: Thor Delta N6 572/D86. FAILURE: Failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • ITOS B - . Payload: ITOS B. Mass: 308 kg (679 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: ITOS. Decay Date: 1972-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 5565 . COSPAR: 1971-091A. Apogee: 1,483 km (921 mi). Perigee: 293 km (182 mi). Inclination: 102.5000 deg. Period: 102.70 min. Summary: Unusable orbit..

1972 October 15 - . 17:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 0300. LV Configuration: Delta 0300 575/D91.
  • NOAA 2 - . Payload: ITOS D. Mass: 344 kg (758 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: ITOS. USAF Sat Cat: 6235 . COSPAR: 1972-082A. Apogee: 1,455 km (904 mi). Perigee: 1,449 km (900 mi). Inclination: 101.8000 deg. Period: 114.90 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1973 July 16 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 0300. LV Configuration: Delta 0300 578/D96. FAILURE: Second stage failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • ITOS E - . Payload: ITOS E. Mass: 345 kg (760 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: ITOS. Decay Date: 1973-07-16 . COSPAR: F730716A. Summary: Improved TIROS Operational System..

1973 November 6 - . 17:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 0300. LV Configuration: Delta 0300 576/D98.
  • NOAA 3 - . Payload: ITOS F. Mass: 345 kg (760 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: ITOS. USAF Sat Cat: 6920 . COSPAR: 1973-086A. Apogee: 1,510 km (930 mi). Perigee: 1,501 km (932 mi). Inclination: 102.1000 deg. Period: 116.10 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1974 November 15 - . 17:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2310. LV Configuration: Delta 2310 592/D104.
  • NOAA 4 - . Payload: ITOS G. Mass: 340 kg (740 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: ITOS. USAF Sat Cat: 7529 . COSPAR: 1974-089A. Apogee: 1,459 km (906 mi). Perigee: 1,445 km (897 mi). Inclination: 101.8000 deg. Period: 114.90 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1976 July 29 - . 17:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2310. LV Configuration: Delta 2310 605/D126.
  • NOAA 5 - . Payload: ITOS H. Mass: 340 kg (740 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: ITOS. USAF Sat Cat: 9057 . COSPAR: 1976-077A. Apogee: 1,523 km (946 mi). Perigee: 1,507 km (936 mi). Inclination: 102.3000 deg. Period: 116.30 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

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