Encyclopedia Astronautica
ITV



witv.jpg
ITV
American military anti-satellite system target satellite. 4 launches, 1985.12.13 (USA 13) to (ITV 1 Balloon). Instrumented Target Vehicle - a satellite balloon target for tests of the American F-15 launched ASAT anti-satellite missile.

The Instrumented Target Vehicle was a relatively sophisticated active satellite. Battery powered, the balloon satellite remained inert and uninflated in orbital storage until the inflation command was transmitted to it. This would only come minutes before the intercept test, and was given as the satellite passed over a Hawaiian ground station. This would set the target up for an intercept over the California coast by an ASAT launched by an F-15A from Edwards AFB.

The ITV was inflated by a hydrazine monopropellant / rheuthenium catalyst gas generator. This was calculated to inflate, heat and maintain the Kevlar balloon at the desired infrared signature required for the ASAT homing vehicle's sensor.

Data from a variety of sensors on the external surface of the balloon were telemetered back to ground stations. The few frames of data that would be received between inflation and intercept allowed the balloon's infrared signature and the geometry of the impact by the interceptor to be determined.

Temperature sensors were embedded in the Kevlar surface at various points. Magnetometers allowed determination of the attitude of the ITV. A grid of break-wires on the surface allowed the location of any impact to be determined.

An omni directional low-power continuous wave radar Miss Distance Indicator sent back data in case the hit-to-kill interceptor did not impact the target. This allowed misses out to around 30 m to be determined; misses beyond that range could be analyzed by post-test radar data.

First Launch: 1985.12.13.
Number: 4 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Scout Solid-fuel, light payload, lower-cost launch vehicle developed by the Air Force and NASA in the late 1950's and used in a variety of configurations over thirty years. Launched from Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg, Wallops Island, and from Italy's equatorial San Marco platform off Kenya. Italy studied but did not develop subsequent upgraded versions. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Scout American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Solid-fuel, light payload, lower-cost launch vehicle developed by the Air Force and NASA in the late 1950's and used in a variety of configurations over thirty years. Launched from Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg, Wallops Island, and from Italy's equatorial San Marco platform off Kenya. Italy studied but did not develop subsequent upgraded versions. More...
  • Scout G American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 3A + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 3 + 1 x Star 20 More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • USAF American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. United States Air Force, USA. More...
  • Avco American manufacturer of spacecraft. Avco, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Grahn, Sven, Sven Grahn's Space History Pages, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Wallops Island Small NASA launch site for sounding rocket launches and occasional Scout launches to orbit. Air launches are conducted from the Drop Zone Wallops Island, 37.00 N 72.0 W. With the last orbital launch in 1985 and the decline in sounding rocket launches, Wallops fell into near-disuse as a launch center. Its fortunes revised with the establishment of Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport in 2005 and orbital launches resumed in 2010. More...

ITV Chronology


1985 December 13 - . 02:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout G. LV Configuration: Scout G-1 S207C.
  • USA 13 - . Payload: ITV 1 ASAT Balloon Target. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft: ITV. Decay Date: 1989-05-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 16328 . COSPAR: 1985-114A. Apogee: 691 km (429 mi). Perigee: 311 km (193 mi). Inclination: 37.1000 deg. Period: 94.60 min. Summary: Target balloon for F-15-launched ASAT missile. The battery-powered vehicle remained uninflated in orbit until a test was planned. Orbital decay data indicated the balloon was never inflated. It decayed without an intercept being attempted..
  • ITV 1 Balloon - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft: ITV. Decay Date: 1989-05-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 16328 . COSPAR: 1985-114xx. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi). Perigee: 148 km (91 mi). Inclination: 37.0000 deg. Period: 87.60 min.
  • ITV 1 Balloon - . Payload: ITV 1 Balloon. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft: ITV. Decay Date: 1987-03-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 17247 . COSPAR: 1985-114D. Apogee: 737 km (457 mi). Perigee: 310 km (190 mi). Inclination: 37.0000 deg. Period: 95.10 min.
  • USA 14 - . Payload: ITV 2 ASAT Balloon Target. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft: ITV. Decay Date: 1987-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 16329 . COSPAR: 1985-114B. Apogee: 450 km (270 mi). Perigee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 37.1000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Target balloon for F-15-launched ASAT missile. The battery-powered vehicle remained uninflated in orbit until a test was planned. Orbital decay data indicates the balloon was inflated on 18 December 1986. However for operational or political reasons no intercept was ever attempted.

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