Encyclopedia Astronautica
Kupon



koupon.jpg
Kupon
Credit: Dmitry Pieson
Russian military communications satellite. One launch, 1997.11.12. Kupon was originally developed by Lavochkin for the third generation GKKRS (Global Space Command and Communications System). Other satellites in the network included Potok and Geizer.

This was a new technical area for Lavochkin, which previously dealt with planetary probes and early warning satellites. The project was cancelled with the breakup of the Soviet Union, and instead Kupon became the first communications satellite for the Russian banking system. The satellite was owned by the Russian Federation Central Bank (and possibly Global Information Systems of Moscow) and relayed financial data for the Bankir network.

In 1990 the Lavochkin NPO announced plans to create the Bankir low earth orbit communications network of 4-8 satellites operating in the UHF band (400-480 MHz) by 1994. By 1992 this project had evolved and merged with the German-Russian Romantis project. The original Romantis plan envisioned a German consortium providing the communications payloads for Russian-built-and-launched satellites. Later, German industry assumed responsibility for the complete development of the spacecraft. Then, in late 1992 the scope of the project was reduced with the German team now focusing on the manufacture of ground station communications network called Bankir. The Bankir name was now used in reference to a geostationary communications system, comprised of Kupon satellites of the Globostar Satellite Communications System. The Bankir network began operations in 1993 via the existing Potok system of Geyser spacecraft. By 1997 a constellation of four Kupon spacecraft was envisioned at locations above the eastern Atlantic (9.5 degrees W) and the eastern and western Indian Ocean (55 degrees E, 86.5 degrees E, and 91.75 degrees E).

Each 2.5 metric-ton Kupon employed sophisticated phased-array antennas for transmission footprints tailored to user specifications. The basic spacecraft carried 16 Ku-band transponders. The Kupon spacecraft bus was derived from the Prognoz SPRN missile detection satellites. The Bankir network was organized by the Russian firm of Global Information Systems, Inc. The Elas NPO provided the transponders and the ground stations.

First Launch: 1997.11.12.
Number: 1 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2M This four stage version uses the Block DM-2M / 11S861-01 upper stage, which has its own self-contained guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Used for launches of Russian geosynchronous satellites from 1994 on. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Lavochkin Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Lavochkin Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia. More...
  • TsBank Russian agency. Central Bank of the Russian Federation. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Vladimirov, A, "Tablitsa zapuskov RN 'Proton' i 'Proton K'", Novosti kosmonavtiki, 1998, Issue 10, page 25.
  • Frolov, I, "Kratkiy istoricheskiy obzor sovietskikh (rossiyskikh) voennikh sredstv", Kosmodrom, No. 8, 1999, p. 21..

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Kupon Chronology


1997 November 12 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 382-01.
  • Kupon - . Payload: Kupon K95K. Nation: Russia. Agency: TsBank. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Kupon. Completed Operations Date: 1998-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 25045 . COSPAR: 1997-070A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,435.50 min. Geosynchronous. Kupon is the first communications satellite for the Russian banking system, and the first commercial communications satellite sold by the Lavochkin, who have in the past been more commonly associated with planetary probes and early warning satellites. Kupon, owned by the Russian Federation Central Bank (and possibly Global Information Systems of Moscow), relays financial data for the Bankir network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 55 deg E in 1997-1998 As of 1 September 2001 located at 86.25 deg E drifting at 0.142 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 78.29E drifting at 0.156E degrees per day.

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