Encyclopedia Astronautica

KVRB stage
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian space tug. Study 1992. Upper stage / space tug - design 1992. High energy upper stage for Proton, never put into production.

KVRB cryogenic kick stage was to be completed by the end of 1995 (competing against motor by CADB). However no production decision ever taken. Technology instead used in 12KRB cryogenic upper stage for the Indian GSLV launcher.

Unit Cost $: 30.000 million.

Gross mass: 19,500 kg (42,900 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Height: 7.00 m (22.90 ft).
Diameter: 3.80 m (12.40 ft).
Span: 3.80 m (12.40 ft).
Thrust: 73.58 kN (16,541 lbf).
Specific impulse: 461 s.

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-56M Isayev lox/lh2 rocket engine. 73.580 kN. Proton and Angara upper stage KVRB, 12KRB upper stage for GSLV (India). In development. Isp=461s. First flight 2001. More...

See also
Associated Propellants
  • Lox/LH2 Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Liquid hydrogen was identified by all the leading rocket visionaries as the theoretically ideal rocket fuel. It had big drawbacks, however - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks. The United States mastered hydrogen technology for the highly classified Lockheed CL-400 Suntan reconnaissance aircraft in the mid-1950's. The technology was transferred to the Centaur rocket stage program, and by the mid-1960's the United States was flying the Centaur and Saturn upper stages using the fuel. It was adopted for the core of the space shuttle, and Centaur stages still fly today. More...

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