Encyclopedia Astronautica
Landsat 4-5



landsat4.jpg
Landsat 4
Credit: NASA
American earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 1982.07.16 (Landsat 4) to 1984.03.01 (Landsat 5).

The Landsat 4 and 5 operational civilian earth resource spacecraft were placed into lower orbits than the previous Landsat spacecraft and carried improved instrument suites.

Beginning in 1983, Landsat 4 lost use of half its solar power and began experiencing numerous spacecraft malfunctions which limited spacecraft functionality. This prompted the early launch of Landsat 5 to guarantee continued coverage. Landsat 5 lost two of its primary communications systems (X-Band downlink and a Ku-Band TDRSS transponder) and backup systems were activated. Management of the spacecraft was transferred from NASA to NOAA with Landsat 4. The spacecraft was 3-axis stabilized, zero momentum with control to 0.01 deg using reaction wheels, and had a structure of aluminum with graphite struts. A hydrazine propulsion system was used, and a single solar array with 1-axis articulation produced 1430 W (BOL), Two NiCd batteries provided 100 AHr total. A retractable boom (4 m long) with 2 powered joints supported the articulated high gain antenna which downlinked data via TDRSS. The communications system used S, X, L, and Ku-Bands.

Landsat 4 and 5 carried Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) imaging sensors. TM provided 7 bands of coverage and the MSS had 4 bands. The MSS covered 0.5 to 12.6 m and provided 80 m resolution with a 185 km swath width. TM covered 0.45 to 12.5 m with resolution of 30 meters in the VIS/IR bands and 120 m in the thermal/IR bands.

Gross mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb).
Height: 4.30 m (14.10 ft).
First Launch: 1982.07.16.
Last Launch: 1984.03.01.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Delta The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Development began in 1955 and it continued in service in the 21st Century despite numerous candidate replacements. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Delta American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced. More...
  • Delta 3920 American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta K More...
  • Delta 3000 American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 3000 series upgraded the boosters to Castor 4 solid propellant strap-ons, while retaining the Extended Long Tank core with RS-27 engine. The 3910 series used the TRW Lunar Module engine in the second stage, while the 3920 series reintroduced the Aerojet AJ110 Delta engine. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...
  • NOAA American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA. More...
  • Fairchild American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Fairchild, USA. More...

Associated Programs
Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Vandenberg Vandenberg Air Force Base is located on the Central Coast of California about 240 km northwest of Los Angeles. It is used for launches of unmanned government and commercial satellites into polar orbit and intercontinental ballistic missile test launches toward the Kwajalein Atoll. More...
  • Vandenberg SLC2W Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a space launch complex in 1966. More...

Landsat 4-5 Chronology


1982 July 16 - . 17:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3920. LV Configuration: Delta 3920 648/D163.
  • Landsat 4 - . Payload: Landsat D. Mass: 1,942 kg (4,281 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Landsat. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Landsat 4-5. USAF Sat Cat: 13367 . COSPAR: 1982-072A. Apogee: 705 km (438 mi). Perigee: 693 km (430 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.80 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1984 March 1 - . 17:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3920. LV Configuration: Delta 3920 D174.
  • Landsat 5 - . Payload: Landsat D'. Mass: 1,938 kg (4,272 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Landsat. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Landsat 4-5. USAF Sat Cat: 14780 . COSPAR: 1984-021A. Apogee: 703 km (436 mi). Perigee: 702 km (436 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.80 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

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