Encyclopedia Astronautica
LL



ll1.jpg
LL-1 Rocketplane
Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1945. The LL was a transonic aerodynamic testbed authorized by LII in September 1945. Three were built: the LL-1 with a straight wing; LL-2 with a conventional swept wing; and LL-3 with a forward swept wing.

The LL was towed to a 6 km release altitude by a Tu-2 aircraft. After being cast off, it would fire its Kartukov PRD-1500 solid rocket engine and accelerate to the edge of the sound barrier, with a camera photographing air flow on the tufted wing. The LL-2 was not finished because contemporary fighter programs were already providing data on swept wing configurations. But in 1946 to 1948 the LL-1 flew 30 times and the LL-3 100 times, with test pilots M Ivanov, Amet-Khan Sultan, Anokhin, and Rybko at the controls.

Crew Size: 1.

AKA: Ts-1.
Gross mass: 2,039 kg (4,495 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 1,139 kg (2,511 lb).
Height: 8.98 m (29.46 ft).
Span: 7.22 m (23.68 ft).
Thrust: 14.70 kN (3,305 lbf).

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Russian Rocketplanes The story of rocketplanes and spaceplanes in the Soviet Union was one of constant setbacks due to internal politics, constant struggle with little result. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Tsybin Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Tsybin Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • TsNIIMASH Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Central Scientific-Research Institute for Machine Building, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Solid Solid propellants have the fuel and oxidiser embedded in a rubbery matrix. They were developed to a high degree of perfection in the United States in the 1950's and 1960's. In Russia, development was slower, due to a lack of technical leadership in the area and rail handling problems. Solid propellants have the fuel and oxidiser embedded in a rubbery matrix. They were developed to a high degree of perfection in the United States in the 1950's and 1960's. In Russia, development was slower, due to a lack of technical leadership in the area and rail handling problems. More...

Bibliography
  • Butowski, Piotr, "Black Reds", Air Forces Monthly Special, X-Planes, February 1998, p. 35.

LL Chronology


1945 September - .
  • LL rocket-powered transonic aerodynamic testbed authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: LL. Summary: In 1946 to 1948 the LL-1 flew 30 times and the LL-3 100 times, with test pilots M Ivanov, Amet-Khan Sultan, Anokhin, and Rybko at the controls..

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