Encyclopedia Astronautica
LLV L-I


American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Lunar Orbit Insertion stage for placing LLV into lunar orbit. Propulsion 2 x RL10-A3 with N2O4/MMH thrusters for orientation, midcourse, and ullage. Lunar orbit insertion of Lunar Logistics Vehicle lander and payload.

Spacecraft delta v: 1,100 m/s (3,600 ft/sec).

AKA: L-I.
Gross mass: 10,500 kg (23,100 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb).
Height: 2.70 m (8.80 ft).
Diameter: 6.70 m (21.90 ft).
Thrust: 131.21 kN (29,497 lbf).
Specific impulse: 444 s.

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Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • LLV American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1966. Many versions of new Lunar Logistic Vehicles (LLV's) using several possible candidate propellants were studied by NASA and its contractors in the mid-1960's for post-Apollo lunar base support. More...

See also
Associated Propellants
  • Lox/LH2 Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Liquid hydrogen was identified by all the leading rocket visionaries as the theoretically ideal rocket fuel. It had big drawbacks, however - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks. The United States mastered hydrogen technology for the highly classified Lockheed CL-400 Suntan reconnaissance aircraft in the mid-1950's. The technology was transferred to the Centaur rocket stage program, and by the mid-1960's the United States was flying the Centaur and Saturn upper stages using the fuel. It was adopted for the core of the space shuttle, and Centaur stages still fly today. More...

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