Encyclopedia Astronautica
LM Langley Light



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Langley 4,372 kg LM
Langley 4,372 kg lunar lander
Credit: © Mark Wade
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LM Langley
Credit: © Mark Wade
American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. This early open-cab single-crew Langley lunar lander design used storable propellants, resulting in an all-up mass of 4,372 kg.

Earliest lunar orbit rendezvous schemes involved use of one or more extremely lightweight, unpressurized lunar landers to take a single astronaut to the lunar service. Others using cryogenic propellants were as low as 1,460 kg - to be compared with the 15,000 kg / 2 man design that eventually was selected. Propellant load estimated.

Crew Size: 1.

Gross mass: 4,372 kg (9,638 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 872 kg (1,922 lb).
Payload: 150 kg (330 lb).
Height: 2.60 m (8.50 ft).
Specific impulse: 311 s.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Gemini LOR American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. Original Mercury Mark II proposal foresaw a Gemini capsule and a single-crew open cockpit lunar lander undertaking a lunar orbit rendezvous mission, launched by a Titan C-3. More...

See also
  • Lunar Landers Lunar lander design started with the British Interplanetary Society's concept of 1939, followed by Von Braun's 3964 tonne monster of 1953. It then settled down to more reasonably-sized variants. Landers came in three main types: two stage versions, with the first stage being a lunar crasher that would brake the spacecraft until just above the lunar surface, then separate, allowing the second stage to land on the surface; two stage versions consisting of a descent stage that went all the way to the surface, and an ascent stage that would take the crew from the surface to lunar orbit or on an earth-return trajectory; and single stage versions, using liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen propellants. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA Langley American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Langley, USA. More...

Associated Propellants
  • N2O4/UDMH Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

Bibliography
  • Baker, David, The History of Manned Spaceflight, Crown, New York, 1981.
  • Brooks, Courtney G, Grimwood, Hames M, Swenson, Lloyd S, Chariots for Apollo, Government Printing Office, 1989. Web Address when accessed: here.

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