Encyclopedia Astronautica
LM Weight


LM Weight Development Diary

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LM Weight Chronology


1962 September - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Apollo spacecraft weights - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; LM Weight. The Apollo spacecraft weights had been apportioned within an assumed 90,000 pound limit. This weight was termed a "design allowable." A lower target weight for each module had been assigned. Achievement of the target weight would allow for increased fuel loading and therefore greater operational flexibility and mission reliability. The design allowable for the command module was 9,500 pounds; the target weight was 8,500 pounds. The service module design allowable was 11,500 pounds; the target weight was 11,000 pounds. The S-IVB adapter design allowable and target weight was 3,200 pounds. The amount of service module useful propellant was 40,300 pounds design allowable; the target weight was 37,120 pounds. The lunar excursion module design allowable was 25,500 pounds; the target weight was 24,500 pounds.

1962 November - .
  • Study of Apollo CSM-LEM transposition and docking - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM RCS; LM RCS; LM Weight. North American completed a study of CSM-LEM transposition and docking. During a lunar mission, after the spacecraft was fired into a trajectory toward the moon, the CSM would separate from the adapter section containing the LEM. It would then turn around, dock with the LEM, and pull the second vehicle free from the adapter. The contractor studied three methods of completing this maneuver: free fly-around, tethered fly- around, and mechanical repositioning. Of the three, the company recommended the free fly-around, based on NASA's criteria of minimum weight, simplicity of design, maximum docking reliability, minimum time of operation, and maximum visibility.

    Also investigated was crew transfer from the CM to the LEM, to determine the requirements for crew performance and, from this, to define human engineering needs. North American concluded that a separate LEM airlock was not needed but that the CSM oxygen supply system's capacity should be increased to effect LEM pressurization.

    On November 29, North American presented the results of docking simulations, which showed that the free flight docking mode was feasible and that the 45-kilogram (100-pound) service module (SM) reaction control system engines were adequate for the terminal phase of docking. The simulations also showed that overall performance of the maneuver was improved by providing the astronaut with an attitude display and some form of alignment aid, such as probe.


1963 May 10 - .
  • The first meeting of the Apollo LEM Flight Technology Systems Panel was held at MSC - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM ECS; LM Weight. The first meeting of the LEM Flight Technology Systems Panel was held at MSC. The panel was formed to coordinate discussions on all problems involving weight control, engineering simulation, and environment. The meeting was devoted to a review of the status of LEM engineering programs.

1963 August 1 - .
  • Three methods of Apollo descent from lunar parking orbit reviewed - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hohmann, Bernhard. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. North American, NASA, and Grumman representatives discussed three methods of descent from lunar parking orbit:

    1. descent of the LEM only (the minimum energy Hohmann transfer),
    2. the combined descent of both spacecraft, and
    3. the synchronous equal period method.
    While neither contractor felt that weight factors should be of primary concern, Grumman favored the Hohmann transfer and North American the combined descent, which represented the extremes of energy requirements. After considering reliability, fuel consumption, and operational flexibility, NASA chose the synchronous method as the prime mission mode but recommended continued investigation of the other two techniques.

1963 August 27 - .
  • Apollo LEM crew systems meeting - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. A LEM crew systems meeting was held at Grumman. The standing arrangement proposed for the crew promised to reduce the weight of the LEM by as much as 27.2 kilograms (60 pounds), and would improve crew mobility, visibility, control accessibility, and ingress-egress. Pending more comprehensive analysis, crew systems designers also favored the revised front-face configuration.

1963 September 26-27 - .
  • Evaluation of the Apollo space suit integration into the LEM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; A7L; LM Weight. MSC representatives visited Grumman for a preliminary evaluation of the Apollo space suit integration into the LEM. A suit failure ended the exercise prematurely. Nonetheless, leg and foot mobility was good, but the upper torso and shoulder needed improvement.

    On October 11, MSC Crew Systems Division (CSD) tested the suit's mobility with the portable life support system (PLSS). CSD researchers found that the PLSS did not restrict the wearer's movement because the suit supported the weight of the PLSS. Shifts in the center of gravity appeared insignificant. The PLSS controls, because of their location, were difficult to operate, which demanded further investigation.


1963 October 14 - .
  • LLRF nearing completion - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LLRF; LM Weight. Langley Research Center's Lunar Landing Research Facility was nearing completion. A gantry structure 121.9 meters (400 feet) long and 76.2 meters (250 feet) high would suspend a model of the LEM. It would sustain five-sixths of the model's weight, simulating lunar gravity, and thus would enable astronauts to practice lunar landings.

1963 October 16-23 - .
  • Apollo weight reduction suggestions - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hohmann, Bernhard. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; LM Weight; LM Weight. An MSC Spacecraft Technology Division Working Group reexamined Apollo mission requirements and suggested a number of ways to reduce spacecraft weight: eliminate the free-return trajectory; design for slower return times; use the Hohmann descent technique, rather than the equal period orbit method, yet size the tanks for the equal period mode; eliminate the CSM/LEM dual rendezvous capability; reduce the orbital contingency time for the LEM (the period of time during which the LEM could remain in orbit before rendezvousing with the CSM); reduce the LEM lifetime.

1963 November 12-19 - .
  • Evaluation of propellant feed systems for the Apollo LEM ascent stage - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. ASPO reviewed Grumman's evaluation of series and parallel propellant feed systems for the LEM ascent stage. Because of the complications involved in minimizing propellant residuals in a parallel system, a series feed appeared preferable, despite an increase in LEM structural weight. Further study of the vehicle showed the feasibility of a two-tank configuration which would be lighter and have about the same propellant residual as the four-tank series-feed arrangement.

1963 December 17 - .
  • Grumman proposed a two-tank ascent stage configuration for the Apollo LEM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Ascent Propulsion; LM Weight. Grumman proposed a two-tank ascent stage configuration for the LEM. On January 17, 1964, ASPO formally concurred and authorized Grumman to go ahead with the design. The change was expected to reduce spacecraft weight by about 45 kilograms (100 pounds) and would make for a simpler, more reliable ascent propulsion system. ASPO also concurred in the selection of titanium for the two propellant tanks.

1964 January 21 - .
  • North American design concept for the Apollo Block II - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Block II; LM Weight. North American gave a presentation at MSC on the block change concept with emphasis on Block II CSM changes. These were defined as modifications necessary for compatibility with the LEM, structural changes to reduce weight or improve CSM center of gravity, and critical systems changes. (Block I spacecraft would carry no rendezvous and docking equipment and would be earth-orbital only. Block II spacecraft would be flight-ready vehicles with the final design configuration for the lunar missions.)

1964 January 30-February 5 - .
  • Preliminary analysis of the probabilities of mission success if Apollo spacecraft hit by meteoroids - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Heat Shield; LM Weight. MSC and North American representatives discussed preliminary analysis of the probabilities of mission success if the spacecraft were hit by meteoroids. The contractor believed that pressurized tankage in the SM must be penetrated before a failure was assumed. To MSC, this view appeared overly optimistic. MSC held that, as the failure criterion, no debris should result from meteoroid impact of the SM outer structure. (This change in criteria would cost several hundred pounds in meteoroid protection weight in the SM and LEM.) North American thought that penetration of one half the depth of the heatshield on the conical surface of the CM was a failure. Here, MSC thought the contractor too conservative; full penetration could probably be allowed.

1964 February 1 - .
  • Apollo Program Review told that metabolic rate in an unpressurized suit twice that in clothes - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM ECS; LM Weight. At an Apollo Program Review held at MSC, Maxime A. Faget reported that Crew Systems Division had learned that the metabolic rate of a man walking in an unpressurized suit was twice that of a man in everyday clothes. When the suit was pressurized to 1.8 newtons per square centimeter (3.5 psi), the rate was about four times as much. To counteract this, a watercooled undergarment developed by the British Ministry of Aviation's Royal Aircraft Establishment was being tested at Hamilton Standard. These "space-age long johns" had a network of small tubes through which water circulated and absorbed body heat. Advantages of the system were improved heat transfer, low circulating noise levels, and relatively moderate flow rates required. An MSC study on integration of the suit with the LEM environmental control system showed a possible weight savings of 9 kilograms (20 pounds).

1964 February 12 - .
  • Harness system for the Apollo LEM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. NASA gave credit to two MSC engineers, George C. Franklin and Louie G. Richard, for designing a harness system for the LEM that enabled the crew to fly the vehicle from a standing position. Eliminating the seats reduced the LEM's weight and gave the crew better visibility and closer observation of controls and instruments.

1964 March 12-18 - .
  • Pressure in the Apollo LEM's descent stage helium tank reduced - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Summary: Primarily as a weight-saving measure, the gas storage pressure in the LEM's descent stage helium tank was reduced from 3,103 to 2,413 newtons per square centimeter (4,500 to 3,500 psia). This allowed the thickness of the tank wall to be reduced..

1964 March 13 - .
  • Apollo LM weight saving program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Electrical; LM Weight. Summary: ASPO notified Grumman that certain items were no longer to be considered in the weight saving program: guidance and navigation components, drinking water tankage, scientific equipment, pyrotechnic batteries, among others..

1964 October 9 - .
  • Weight reduction program for the Apollo LEM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. NASA and Grumman representatives discussed a weight reduction program for the LEM. Changes approved at the M-5 mockup review portended an increase in LEM separation weight of from 68 to 453 kg (150 to 1,000 lbs). Both parties agreed to evaluate the alternatives of either resizing the spacecraft or finding ways to lighten it about nine percent, thus keeping the improved LEM within the present control weight.

1964 October 26 - .
  • Trajectory summary of Apollo Design Reference Mission sent to Grumman - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. The trajectory summary of the Design Reference Mission (DRM) prepared by the Apollo Mission Planning Task Force was sent to Grumman by the LEM Project Office with a note that the operational sequence-of-events would be forwarded in November.

    It was acknowledged that a single mission could not serve to "completely define all the spacecraft functional requirements" but "such a mission has considerable value as a standard for various purposes on the Apollo Program."

    Specifically, the DRM would be used for weight reporting, electrical power reporting, reliability modeling, engineering simulation, crew task analyses, mission-related Interface Control Documents, and trade-off studies.


1964 December 9 - .
  • Weight allocation for the Apollo LEM's R&D instrumentation - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Summary: MSC revised the weight allocation for the LEM's R&D instrumentation to bring it in line with current mission planning. Limitations established were 295 kg (650 lbs) for 206A and 181 kg (400 lbs) for all other missions..

1964 December 15-16 - .
  • Thermal-demanded weight increases for the Apollo LEM's steerable antenna - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM RCS; LM RCS; LM Weight. Dalmo-Victor studied thermal-demanded weight increases for the LEM's steerable antenna. Investigators reported to Grumman and RCA that, in the plume of the CSM's reaction control engines, 1.18 kg (2.5 lbs) was necessary merely for the survival of the antenna; another 1.18 kg would be required for tracking during this impingement.

1964 December 21 - .
  • Thermal status of antennas for the Apollo CSM and LEM spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Heat Shield; CSM SPS; LM RCS; LM Weight. The Structures and Mechanics Division (SMD) summarized the thermal status of antennas for the Apollo spacecraft (both CSM and LEM). Generally, most troubles stemmed from plume impingement by the reaction control or radiation from the service propulsion engines. These problems, SMD reported, were being solved by increasing the weight of an antenna either its structural weight or its insulation; by shielding it from the engines' exhaust; by isolating its more critical components; or by a combination of these methods.

1965 January 6-8 - .
  • Preliminary Design Review of the Apollo Block II CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Block II; LM Weight. The Preliminary Design Review of the Block II CM was held at North American's Downey, Calif., plant. Ten working groups evaluated the spacecraft design and resolved numerous minor details. They then reported to a review board of NASA and North American officials. Additional Details: here....

1965 January 13 - .
  • Configuration Control Board - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Maynard. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Block II; LM Guidance; LM Weight. The first meeting of the Configuration Control Board was held at MSC with ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea as chairman. Approval was given to delete 10 Apollo guidance and navigation systems; and W. F. Rector III was directed to look into the use of computers and prototype units for electronic systems integration. In other actions, a decision on changes to CSM specifications to provide for the heavyweight LEM (a proposed increase from 12,705 to 14,515 kg (28,000 to 32,000 lbs)) was deferred until the next meeting; and Owen Maynard was directed to identify all Block II changes that must be implemented regardless of impact and have them ready for Board action by February 18, 1965.

1965 January 28-February 4 - .
  • Device to detect failures in the reaction control system (RCS) for Block I Apollo CSMs cancelled - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Block II; LM RCS; LM Weight. MSC canceled plans (originally proposed by North American) for a device to detect failures in the reaction control system (RCS) for Block I CSMs. This was done partly because of impending weight, cost, and schedule penalties, but also because, given an RCS failure during earth orbit, the crew could detect it in time to return to earth safely even without the proposed device. This action in no way affected the effort to devise such a detection system for the Block II CSM or the LEM, however.

1965 February 23 - .
  • Expected firing date for the heavyweight Apollo ascent rig slipped - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. William F. Rector III, MSC's LEM Project Officer, reported at an ASPO Manager's Staff Meeting that the expected firing date for the heavyweight ascent (HA) rig #3 at WSTF had been slipped from March 18, 1965, until April 13. Grumman personnel at White Sands said the slip was necessary because

    1. a propellant loading control assembly to be mounted on the rig could not be used in the planned location because it was not accessible for checkout and would require two weeks for refabrication of certain pipelines and further checkout;
    2. checkout of various wiring between the HA-3 rig and the facilities did not occur on schedule and two weeks would be required to complete the task; and
    3. adequate interfacing between the fluid and gaseous ground support equipment (GSE) and various facility pipes was not maintained with many pieces of GSE putting out higher pressure than the facility pipes design allowed.

1965 March 8 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • No serious weight problems with the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Missiles and Rockets reported a statement by Joseph F. Shea, ASPO manager, that MSC had no serious weight problems with the Apollo spacecraft. The current weight, he said, was 454 kg (1,000 lbs) under the 40,823 kg (90,000 lb) goal. Moreover, the increased payload of the Saturn V to 43,091 kg (95,000 lbs) permitted further increases. Shea admitted, however, that the LEM was growing; recent decisions in favor of safety and redundancy could raise the module's weight from 13,381 kg to 14,575 kg (29,500 lbs to 32,000 lbs).

1965 March 15 - .
  • Tracking light on the Apollo LEM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. MSC defined the functional and design requirements for the tracking light on the LEM:

    • The light must be compatible for use with CSM scan telescope sextant optics in visual mode during darkside lunar and earth operations.
    • The light must provide range capability of 324.1 km (175 nm) for darkside lunar operations when viewed with the CSM sextant.
    • The probability of detection within three-minute search time at maximum range when viewed with CSM sextant must exceed 99 percent for worst lunar background.
    • The light must flash at the optimum rate for ease of detection and tracking (60 flashes per minute ±5 fpm).
    • Brightness attenuation must be available for terminal phase operation and for minimizing spacecraft electrical energy drain.
    • The light must be capable of inflight operation for continuous periods of one hour duration over four cycles.
    • The light must have a total operating life of 30 hours at rated output with a shelf life of two years.
    • The light was not required to be maintainable at the component level.
    • The total system weight including cooling and electromagnetic interference shielding, if required, should not exceed 5.44 kg (12 lbs).

1965 April 9 - .
  • Single garment selected for both thermal and micrometeoroid protection for Apollo astronauts - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Crew Systems Division (CSD) decided on a single garment for both thermal and micrometeoroid protection for Apollo astronauts. CSD's Richard S. Johnston summarized factors underlying this decision:

    • The integrated garment would be easier to don and thus would simplify preparations for leaving the LEM; it would fit better and afford greater visibility, mobility, and access to suit controls.
    • The dual-purpose garment would weigh about 2.3 kg (5 lbs) less than would two separate protective covers. And because it would consume less storage space, the ascent stage of the spacecraft could be lightened by about three pounds. Involved here, also, was the abort weight of the LEM. It was assumed that the most adverse conditions would be encountered during an "immediate abort," before the crew could depressurize the cabin or jettison now-superfluous equipment (such as the thermal/meteoroid garment).
    • Conversely, separate protective garments - and the "staging" procedure they entailed - would require modifications to the spacecraft and would shorten the astronauts' stay outside the LEM. Moreover, and perhaps even more important, separate garments would limit rescue possibilities and would lessen crew safety.
    Johnston emphasized that, if for any reason the integration scheme proved impracticable, the division could still return to the concept of separate thermal and micrometeoroid garments.

1965 April 9 - .
  • Recommendation for an up-data system in the Apollo LEM during manned missions - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Guidance; LM Guidance; LM Weight. Systems Engineering Division (SED) reviewed the Flight Operations Directorate's recommendation for an up-data system in the LEM during manned missions. (Currently the LEM's guidance computer received data either from the computer in the CSM or from MSC.) SED concluded that, because the equipment was not essential for mission success, an up-data system did not warrant the cost and weight penalties ($750,000 and 4.54 kg (10 lbs)) that it would entail.

1965 May 6 - .
  • Recommendation for an up-data link in the Apollo LEM overruled - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. ASPO overruled a recommendation by the Flight Operations Directorate for an up-data link in the LEM. Although an automated means of inserting data into the spacecraft's computer was deemed "highly desirable," there were prohibitive consequences:

    • Weight - 7.25 kg (16 lbs) in the ascent stage
    • Cost - $1.7 million
    • Schedule delay - five months
    This last effect ASPO termed "flatly unacceptable."

1965 May 10 - .
  • Combination of modes for storing oxygen in the Apollo LEM's environmental control system considered - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM ECS; LM Weight. ASPO reviewed Grumman's recommendation for a combination of supercritical and gaseous modes for storing oxygen in the LEM's environmental control system (ECS). MSC engineers determined that such an approach would save only about 14.96 kg (33 lbs) over a high- pressure, all-gaseous design. Mission objectives demanded only four repressurizations of the LEM's cabin. On the basis of this criterion, the weight differential was placed at less than nine pounds.

    As a result of this analysis, MSC directed Grumman to design the LEM ECS with an all-gaseous oxygen storage system.


1965 May 20-27 - .
  • Apollo CSM to LEM water transfer scheme canceled. - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Engineers from General Electric and MSC's Crew Systems and Systems Engineering Divisions determined that transferring water from the CSM to the LEM involved a 5.4-kg (12-lb) increase in the latter's separation weight. Grumman had placed the penalty at only l.8 kg (4 lbs). Because the LEM's weight was so critical, the water transfer scheme was canceled.

1965 May 26 - .
  • Apollo LEM control weight revised - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Descent Propulsion; LM Weight. ASPO requested the Apollo Program Director to revise the LEM control weight at translunar injection as follows:

    • Ascent stage - 2,193kg (4,835lbs)
    • Descent stage - 2,166kg (4,775lbs)
    • Total LEM (fueled) - 14,515kg (32,000lbs)
    The increase would be made possible by reductions of service propulsion system propellant requirements associated with the revised delta-V budget. ASPO pointed out that existing CSM and adapter control weight propellant requirements allowed a maximum LEM injected weight of 14,877 kg (32,800 lbs) with no increase in the launch vehicle payload requirement.

1965 June 11 - .
  • Gaseous oxygen storage for the Apollo LEM's environmental control system (ECS) - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; A7L; LM ECS; LM Weight. MSC ordered Grumman to propose a gaseous oxygen storage configuration for the LEM's environmental control system (ECS), including all oxygen requirements and system weights. Because no decision was yet made on simultaneous surface excursions by the crew, Grumman should design the LEM's ECS for either one-or two-man operations. And the Center further defined requirements for cabin repressurizations and replenishment of the portable life support systems. Oxygen quantities and pressures would be worked out on the basis of these ground rules.

1965 June 11 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB.
  • Data tape recorder probably not to be installed on Apollo LEM-1 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Summary: The question of whether a data tape recorder would be installed on LEM-1 had been discussed at several Apollo 206 Mission Operations Plan meetings and there was a strong possibility it would not be installed. . Additional Details: here....

1965 June 25 - .
  • Apollo LEM weight control problems - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Harry L. Reynolds, Assistant Manager of ASPO, said it was "becoming increasingly clear that we are going to have a difficult job keeping the LEM weight below the control weight." He said the Grumman effort was not adequate and suggested that R. Bullard of MSC be given LEM weight control as a full-time responsibility.

1965 June 28 - .
  • Redundancy in the Apollo LEM's pulse code modulation telemetry system vetoed - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Maynard. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Owen E. Maynard, Chief of the Systems Engineering Division, vetoed a demand by the Flight Control Division for redundancy in the LEM's pulse code modulation telemetry system. Two factors determined Maynard's action:

    1. cost and schedule impacts, and
    2. the resultant weight and power increases that redundancy would impose. Also it would produce only a "marginal" increase in the total reliability of the spacecraft.

1965 July 13 - .
  • Controlling the amount of bacteria vented from the Apollo LEM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM ECS; LM Weight. Crew Systems Division (CSD) completed its study on the feasibility of controlling the amount of bacteria vented from the LEM. Division researchers found that, by placing special filters in the environmental control system (ECS) of the spacecraft, emission levels could be greatly lowered. This reduction would be meaningless, however, in view of effluents from the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) - the moon would still be contaminated by the space travelers. Because of weight penalties - and because of their dubious value - CSD recommended that bacteria filters not be added to the LEM's ECS. The Division further advised that, at present, neither the amount of bacteria emitted from the EMU nor a means of controlling this effluence was yet known.

1965 July 19 - .
  • Total Apollo LEM weight 14,515 kg - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. MSC directed Grumman to implement changes in weights of the LEM:

    Total LEM14,515 kg (32,000 lbs)
    Ascent stage inert2,193 kg (4,835 lbs)
    Descent stage inert2,166 kg (4,775 lbs)
    Memorandum, James L. Neal, MSC, to GAEC, Attn: John C. Snedeker,

1965 July 21 - .
  • Apollo experiments package would be left on the moon - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Communications; LM Weight. MSC officially notified Grumman that, as part of the Apollo scientific program, an experiments package would be left on the moon by the crewmen of the LEM. The Center outlined weight and storage requirements for the package, which would be stored in the descent stage of the vehicle along with the lunar geological equipment. And MSC emphasized the need for dissipating waste heat given off by the system's radioisotope generator. (The radioisotope generator was a firm requirement, despite the fear voiced by many scientists that the radiation it gave off would disrupt the experiments.)

1965 August 2 - .
  • Restrictions for the scientific equipment packages for the Apollo LEM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Summary: MSC informed Grumman of package dimensions and weight restrictions for the scientific equipment and packages to be stored in the LEM..

1965 August 12-13 - .
  • Concept for a panel retention system in the Apollo LEM adapter rejected - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. MSC rejected North American's second design concept for a panel retention system in the LEM adapter. (The contractor's first proposal had drawn an unsatisfactory verdict early in June.) These successive rejections, largely on the basis of weight and vibration factors, illustrated the company's continuing difficulties with the system. MSC "suggested" to North American that it circumvent these problems by attaching the retention cable directly to the skin of the adapter.

1965 August 18 - .
  • Operation Scrape to lighten the Apollo LEM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. At a third status meeting on LEM-1, Grumman put into effect "Operation Scrape," an effort to lighten that spacecraft by about 57 kg (125 lbs). "Scrape" involved an exchange of parts between LEM-1 and LTA-3. The former vehicle thus would be heavier than the latter; LTA-3, on the other hand, would have the same structural weight as LEMs 2 and forthcoming.

1965 September 8 - .
  • Apollo LEM vehicle as an electrical ground - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Assistant ASPO Manager William A. Lee told the General Instrumentation Branch of the Instrumentation and Electronic Systems Division Grumman was preparing a proposal for use of the LEM vehicle as an electrical ground. The plan was to adopt a single wire system selectively for those circuits not susceptible to electrical transients. Lee said Grumman estimated a weight savings of 27 kg (60 lbs) in the ascent stage and 9 kg (20 lbs) in the descent stage. The proposal was expected to be available to NASA by October 1 and Lee had committed NASA to a decision within three weeks of receipt of the plan.

1965 September 10 - .
  • Major technical problems plaguing Apollo designers - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Maynard; Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Owen E. Maynard, Chief of Systems Engineering Division, advised ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea of the major technical problems currently plaguing Apollo designers:

    Spacecraft weight growths
    these, Maynard said, exceeded predictions "by a serious margin." Pessimistically, he added that the performance of many systems was but "marginally acceptable."
    Lunar landing criteria
    the unknowns involved precluded conservative thinking on the LEM.
    Integration of scientific experiments
    Maynard blamed the "piece-meal" integration of experiments for the lack of comprehensive planning and for many late hardware changes.
    Water landing criteria
    because of the range of variables, present design margins were questionable.
    Land landing
    i.e., development of the landing rockets.
    Thermal design
    conflicts existed between temperature control and attitude constraints for the spacecraft.
    Propulsion performance
    no unit, Maynard reported, had yet achieved the specific impulse which was required of it.
    Space suit development
    design of the suit, and of the thermal-meteoroid garment and the portable life support system, Maynard said, had "gyrated violently, resulting in spacecraft design compromises to accommodate questionable space suit performance."

1965 September 13 - .
  • ASPO Manager Joseph F Shea announced a new plan to control Apollo spacecraft weight - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; LM Weight. ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea announced a new plan for controlling the weight of Apollo spacecraft. Every week, subsystem managers would report to a Weight Control Board (WCB), headed by Shea, which would rule on their proposals for meeting the target weight for their systems. Three task forces also would report to the WCB on the way to lighten the spacecraft:

    1. weight reduction task force;
    2. requirements reduction task force; and
    3. an operations task force.

1965 September 16 - .
  • Apollo LM PCMTEA changes - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Guidance; LM Weight. The Assistant Chief for Electronic Systems notified ASPO that the proposed Grumman plan to repackage the LEM pulse command modulated and timing electronic assembly (PCMTEA) had been discussed and investigated and that the Instrumentation and Electronic Systems Division (IESD) concurred with the proposal. Additional Details: here....

1965 September 16-17 - .
  • Design review on the attitude controller for the Apollo LEM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Summary: A design review on the attitude controller for the LEM was held at Honeywell. Flight Crew Support Division reported that the device seemed "highly optimized functionally, operationally, and weight wise.".

1965 September 27 - .
  • Nonmetallic materials used in the habitable area of the Apollo LEM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Summary: MSC directed Grumman to draw up a complete list of all nonmetallic materials used in the habitable area of the LEM, including type, use, location, weight, and source of all such materials..

1965 October 7-14 - .
  • Apollo LEM's inflight VHF antenna might be used as a link to astronauts on the surface of the moon - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Communications; LM Weight. The Instrumentation and Electronic Systems Division (IESD) proposed that the LEM's inflight VHF antenna might be used as a link to astronauts on the surface of the moon as well. (LEM communications had to provide VHF contact with the crew outside the spacecraft at ranges up to three nautical miles. The VHF antenna, however, had been designed only for the flight portions of the mission, and to meet this communications requirement another antenna was being added to the LEM at a cost of between 1.36 and 2.26 kg (3 and 5 lbs).) IESD offered to study the coverage and range of the inflight antenna while on the lunar surface, and suggested that the three-mile range requirement might be relaxed. The additional VHF antenna might thereby be obviated.

    Also, IESD attended a preliminary design review at Autonetics on the signal conditioning equipment (SCE) for the Block II CSM. IESD concurred in several modifications to the Block I design (adding a redundant power supply; hermetic sealing of equipment; and repackaging to fit the equipment bay in Block II CMs). These changes reduced the SCE's weight from 22 to 19 kg (47.5 to 41 lbs) and, because of more efficient power supply, lowered its power consumption from 65 to 35 watts. North American was studying ways of perhaps lightening the SCE even further.


1965 October 12 - .
  • Weight and storage details for Apollo extravehicular visors specified - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Cockpit; LM Weight. To ensure compatibility with the spacecraft, MSC specified weight and storage details for the extravehicular visors. The devices, two of which would be carried on each mission and transferred from the CM to the LEM, would afford impact, thermal, and ultraviolet protection for the crew during operations in space or on the lunar surface.

1965 December 16 - .
  • Apollo Weight and Performance management system proved itself as a useful management tool - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; LM Weight. Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips said the Apollo Weight and Performance management system, jointly developed by the Apollo Program Office and the Centers had proved itself as a useful management tool. He considered that the system had matured to the point that changes in organizational responsibility were needed. He set a target date of December 31, 1965, to complete the following actions:

    • The focal point for the work had been in Apollo Program Control. Since it was a systems engineering function, Phillips was transferring this responsibility to his Apollo Systems Engineering organization.
    • The APO Directorate of Systems Engineering would provide a quarterly weight and performance report and a monthly summary report on an integrated program basis.
    • MSC would be responsible for and provide to the Apollo Program Office the weight and performance material which had been directed to Apollo Program Control.
    Phillips acknowledged that an important element of the Apollo Weight and Performance management system had been the prediction analysis (weight growth) assessment effort performed by GE Apollo Support Division, under contract to the Apollo Program Control Office. Phillips felt, however, that weight growth analyses were a Center responsibility, and there was no continuing need for GE to perform in this area since the prediction analysis methodology had been established.

    Phillips told ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea that if he wished to continue to use GE's service in this area, he would support his request with the stipulation that GE's prediction analysis operation be supervised by MSC personnel.


1965 December 17 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Proposal rejected that the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) on Apollo LEM-3 be deleted - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 8; Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Summary: The MSC Systems Development Branch rejected a proposal that the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) on LEM-3 be deleted for the following reasons:

    1. LEM-3 would be the first full-weight LEM launched on a Saturn V vehicle. . Additional Details: here....

1965 - During the last quarter - .
  • Changes in Apollo spacecraft weights - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea reported to Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips on changes in spacecraft weights:

    • The CM control weight was 4,989 kg (11,000 lbs) and current weight 4,954 kg (10,920 lbs), up 126.55 kg (279 lbs) from September.
    • The SM control weight was 4,627 kg (10,200 lbs), and current weight was 4,591 kg (10,122 lbs), down 44.45 kg (98 lbs). The total amount of usable propellant, control weight, was 16,642 kg (36,690 lbs), and current weight was 16,468 kg (36,305 lbs), up 53.98 kg (119 lbs).
    • The LEM control weight was 14,515 kg (32,000 lbs) and current weight was 14,333 kg (31,599 lbs), down 81.65 kg (180 lbs).
    • The spacecraft-LEM-adapter control weight was 1,724 kg (3,800 lbs) and the current weight was 1,624 kg (3,580 lbs), up 22.68 kg (50 lbs).
    • The total spacecraft injected control weight was 43,091 kg (95,000 lbs), and current weight was 42,422 kg (93,526 lbs), up 77.11 kg (170 lbs).
    • The launch escape system control weight was 3,719 kg (8,200 lbs), and current weight 3,741 kg (8,245 lbs), up 20.41 kg (45 lbs).
    • The total launch control weight was 46,811 kg (103,200 lbs), and current weight was 46,163 kg (101,771 lbs), up 97.52 kg (215 lbs).

1966 May 5 - .
  • Apollo lunar landing mission weight and performance budgets - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; CSM Block II; LM Weight. NASA Hq. requested the MSC Apollo Spacecraft Program Office to reassess the spacecraft control weights and delta-V budget and prepare recommendations for the first lunar landing mission weight and performance budgets. The ASPO spacecraft Weight Report for April indicated that the Block II CSM, when loaded for an 8.3-day mission, would exceed its control weights by more than 180 kilograms and the projected value would exceed the control weight by more than 630 kilograms. At the same time the LEM was reported at 495 kilograms under its control weight. Credit for LEM weight reduction had been attributed to Grumman's Super Weight Improvement Program.

1966 Week Ending August 26 - .
  • Kearfott selected for the orbital rate drive electronics for Apollo LM (ORDEAL) - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. The Bethpage RASPO Business Manager and Grumman representatives met to choose a vendor to produce the orbital rate drive electronics for Apollo and LM (ORDEAL). Three proposals were received: Arma Division of American Bosch Arma Corp., $275,000; Kearfott Products Division of General Precision, Inc., $295,000; and Bendix Corp., $715,000. Kearfott's proposal was evaluated as offering a more desirable weight, more certain delivery, and smaller size within the power budget and consequently was selected although it was not the low bid. Evaluators believed that Arma's approach would not be easy to implement, that its delivery schedule was unrealistic, and that its proposal lacked a definite work statement in the areas of testing, quality control, reliability, and documentation.

1967 January 4 - .
  • Apollo alternate lunar surface mission plans - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kraft. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM ECS; LM Weight. An MSC meeting selected a Flight Operations Directorate position on basic factors of the first lunar landing mission phase and initiated a plan by which the Directorate would inform other organizations of the factors and the operational capabilities of combining them into alternate lunar surface mission plans.

    Flight Operations Director Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., conducted the discussion, with Rodney G. Rose, Carl Kovitz, Morris V. Jenkins, William E. Platt, James E. Hannigan, Bruce H. Walton, and William L. Davidson participating.

    The major factors (philosophy) identified at the meeting were:

    • "The astronauts should be provided with an extravehicular (EVA) timeline framework and objectives and then be given real time control of their own activities. This approach should better accommodate the first lunar surface unknowns than if rigorous activity control were attempted from earth."
    • "The LM should always be in a position to get back into lunar orbit in the minimum time. Specifically the merits and feasibility of maintaining the LM platform powered up and aligned should be evaluated. Any other LM systems requiring start up time after powering down should be identified."
    • "The constraints affecting the minimum time required to turn around and launch after LM landing and the time line should be determined. This time was estimated to two CSM orbits. The effects of Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) support should be considered."
    • The first EVA should be allocated to LM post landing inspection, immediate lunar sample collection, lunar environment familiarization, photographic documentation, and astronaut exploration prerogatives. Any second EVA would include deployment of ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) and a more systematic geological survey. Therefore, a mission nominally planned for only one EVA would not have to include an ALSEP in the payload. Any flight operations benefits resulting from deletion of the ALSEP weight and deployment operations (such as replacing weight with more fuel) must be determined."
    Other less important factors were discussed and several action items were assigned: Rose would be responsible for successful implementation of plans resulting from the meeting. Hannigan would determine the LM, portable life support system, and ALSEP systems constraints and determine if the ALSEP weight allowance could be beneficially applied to LM consumables. The Operations Analysis Branch would investigate the MSFN support.

1967 March 8 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Saturn V translunar payload 44,500 kilograms - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mueller. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight George E. Mueller stated that the February completion of MSFC studies of the Saturn V launch vehicle's payload and structural capability would permit an official revision of the payload from 43,100 kilograms to 44,500 kilograms; the CM weight would be revised from 5,000 to 5,400 kilograms; and the LM from 13,600 to 14,500.

1967 June 2 - .
  • Apollo CSM and LM changes, schedules, and related test and hardware programs discussed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. A meeting at MSC discussed CSM and LM changes, schedules, and related test and hardware programs. On June 26, NASA Apollo Program Manager Samuel C. Phillips summarized the discussion in a letter to George Low. He pointed out that certain problems could result in serious program impact if not solved expeditiously and specifically mentioned couch design, the weight problem in the CSM and LM, docking changes, and delivery schedules.

1967 June 6 - .
  • Bendix demonstrated boom to remove Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) the LM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Communications; LM Weight. Bendix Corp. demonstrated the operation of a sliding boom concept to prove that the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) could be removed from the LM at various attitudes. MSC representatives viewing the demonstration at Ann Arbor, Mich., were Aaron Cohen, Don Weissman, Paul Gerke, Don Lind, and Harrison Schmitt. Cohen reported that the mockup was crude but indicated that the concept was satisfactory to both Grumman and NASAL Design refinement, qualification, and effect on LM structure would have to be looked into. It was believed an additional seven kilograms of weight would be added to the LM descent stage. Two interface problems were defined at the meeting:

    1. Bendix and Grumman required maximum and minimum attitude position for the LM to complete the design of ALSEP handling equipment.
    2. Both Grumman and Bendix required temperature criteria for the outer shield of the cask, which would contain radioactive material.

1967 June 8 - .
  • Weight problem in the Apollo CSM and LM seen as critical - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. In a memorandum to the Chief, Systems Engineering Division, MSC, ASPO Manager George M. Low pointed out the weight problem in the CSM and LM was critical. Low called for a detailed review of weight effects along with any proposed design change. The weight estimate was to be submitted by the affected contractor as a part of his change proposal, and this would then be verified by the subsystems manager and Systems Engineering.

    To provide timely weight status to the Configuration Control Board, Systems Engineering Division was given the responsibility of presenting CSM and LM weight status at each weekly Board meeting as follows:

    1. control weight,
    2. current weight, and
    3. estimated weight at time of launch.
    These figures would be shown for three spacecraft: first manned, second manned, and lunar configuration. Both launch weight and reentry weight were to be included.

1967 June 20 - .
  • Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package deleted for the first landing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Leonard Reiffel of the NASA Hq. Apollo Program Office suggested to Program Director Samuel C. Phillips that "we do not schedule the ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) for the first lunar landing," because:

    • The duration on the lunar surface for the first mission was likely to be short and the ALSEP deployment time was likely to take a seriously disproportionate share of available time. "It is my opinion we will learn more of immediate consequence to science and to planning of subsequent missions from careful observations and sample collection as contrasted to emplacement of an all-up ALSEP."
    • With the exception of the lunar atmosphere, manned operations would not disturb the conditions ALSEP was intended to measure. These, therefore, could be measured on later flights.
    • The magnetometer was in trouble. The interpretability of plasma experiments on an ALSEP that did not include a magnetometer would be markedly depreciated.
    • The problem of LM weight control would be eased substantially if only the lunar geological tools and sample boxes, rather than the full ALSEP, were carried.
    • Waiting for the second lunar mission would decrease the risk of wasting a full ALSEP payload, since the Apollo system already would have successfully reached the moon once.

    He added, "An uncrowded time line on the lunar surface for the first mission would seem to me more contributory to the advance of science than trying to do so much on the first mission that we do nothing well. . . ."


1967 October 5 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft weight problem - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; LM Weight. An exchange of correspondence between MSC and North American Rockwell emphasized the seriousness of the spacecraft weight problem. Accurate and timely weight visibility was of paramount importance for weight control and resulted from proper implementation and control of weight prediction, weight control from design initiation, and weight status reporting. To ensure visibility, North American Rockwell was instituting a program that would use system design personnel in weight prediction and reporting. Preliminary design personnel in the Design Requirements Group were designated to integrate the effort.

1967 October 30 - .
  • Actions on Apollo television cameras reported - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Summary: Actions on television cameras were reported by ASPO Manager George M. Low to Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips. . Additional Details: here....

1967 December 7 - .
  • Astronaut Conrad concerned about an attitude control problem in the Apollo LM - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Slayton; Conrad. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Astronaut Charles (Pete) Conrad's concern about an anticipated attitude control problem in the LM was reported. Conrad had said, "The LM is too sporty when in a light weight configuration." Minimum impulse was expected to produce about 0.3 degree per second rate, which was estimated to be about four times too fast. A memo on the problem possibility was written by Howard W. Tindall, Jr., Deputy Chief of MSC's Mission Planning and Analysis Division, to stimulate thinking. On December 9, ASPO Manager George M. Low asked Donald K. Slayton and Warren J. North if there was any chance of setting up a simulation to see whether this was a real concern.

1967 December 21 - .
  • Apollo Lunar Mission Planning Board - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kraft. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. A Lunar Mission Planning Board meeting was held at MSC with Julian M. West as acting chairman. Also present were Wilmot N. Hess, Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., Paul E. Purser, and Andre J. Meyer, Jr. (secretary); and invited participants Gus R. Babb, John M. Eggleston, and James J. Taylor. The meeting agenda involved two main subjects:

    1. review of major meetings recently held involving lunar exploration and planning; and
    2. review of the remote sensors for use in lunar orbit and payload available on the CSM during a manned landing mission for carrying remote sensing instrumentation.
    Additional Details: here....

1968 January 19 - .
  • Detailed comparison of configuration differences between the Apollo CSM and LM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips wrote ASPO Manager George M. Low requesting that he establish and maintain a detailed comparison of configuration differences between the CSM and LM. This comparison, Phillips said, should include major interface differences, subsystems and components, weight, performance, and crew safety. Phillips ordered this comparison chiefly because the Apollo spacecraft was entering an extremely important phase to certify the vehicles for manned flight.

1968 January 22 - .
  • Problem of stress corrosion in the Apollo LM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Joseph G. Gavin, Jr., LM Program Director at Grumman, advised ASPO Manager George M. Low of steps under way to attack the problem of stress corrosion in the LM. (Low had expressed MSC's concern over this potential danger on December 20, 1967.) While stating that he shared Low's concern, Gavin believed that stress corrosion would not prove to be of significance to the LM mission. However, his organization was prepared to reevaluate the LM's design and fabrication to determine to what extent the problem could be ameliorated. (Gavin denied that such metal corrosion could be absolutely eliminated using present materials as dictated by weight constraints on the LM design.) Gavin stated that he had created a special team of experienced designers and stress analysts to review engineering design of every LM part sensitive to stress corrosion, to review processes employed in fabrication of the LM structure, and to review the adequacy of the company's quality control procedures to ensure corrosion-free parts and assemblies.

1968 August 26 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Payload weight of 39.78 tonnes for Apollo AS-503 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. ASPO Manager George M. Low asked Joseph N. Kotanchik, head of the Structures and Mechanics Division, to verify that all spacecraft load analyses and safety factors were compatible with the recently agreed-on payload weight of 39,780 kilograms for the AS-503 mission. Additional Details: here....

1968 August 27 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Decision to use Apollo LTA-B as payload ballast on the AS-503 flight - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, George. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo LTA; LM Weight. George M. Low, ASPO Manager, set forth the rationale for using LTA-B (as opposed to some other LM test article or even a full-blown LM) as payload ballast on the AS-503 mission. That decision had been a joint one by Headquarters, MSFC, and MSC. Perhaps the chief reason for the decision was Marshall's position that the Saturn V's control system was extremely sensitive to payload weight. Numerous tests had been made for payloads of around 38,555 kilograms but none for those in the 29,435- to 31,750-kilogram range. MSFC had therefore asked that the minimum payload for AS-503 be set at 38,555 kilograms. Additional Details: here....

1968 October 7 - .
  • Plan for control of configuration changes on the Apollo LM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Ralph H. Tripp, LM Program Manager at Grumman, forwarded his company's plan for control of configuration changes on the LM. The need for such a formal statement had been discussed at a meeting in Bethpage on September 25 between ASPO Manager George M. Low; his deputy for the LM, C. H. Bolender; other Apollo engineers from Houston; and Tripp, LM Program Director Joseph G. Gavin, Jr., and others from Grumman. Grumman's ground rules set forth explicit guidelines governing change approval levels, specifically those changes which the contractor might make without obtaining prior specific approval from NASA (defined as "compatibility changes" that did not have significant cost, weight, performance, schedule, or safety effects) - although Grumman must continue to inform MSC of these changes as they occurred.

1968 October 23 - .
  • Two failures of Apollo LM propellant tanks fail during testing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 13. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Summary: LeRoy E. Day, Apollo Test Director, NASA Hq., informed Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips of two failures of LM propellant tanks during testing, a problem that might have significant program impact on LMs 6 and 7 and subsequent vehicles. . Additional Details: here....

1969 April 12 - .
  • Weight allowance for the Apollo scientific payload increased - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 12. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; LM Weight. Summary: ASPO Manager George Low informed MSC Director of Science and Applications Wilmot N. Hess that he had signed paperwork increasing the weight allowance for the Apollo scientific payload from 136 to 156.4 kilograms. . Additional Details: here....

1969 December 1 - .
  • Requirement for a simple lightweight Apollo lunar roving vehicle guidance and navigation system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 12. Spacecraft: Apollo LRV; LM Communications; LM Guidance; LM Weight. The MSC Flight Crew Operations Directorate submitted its requirement for a simple lightweight Rover (lunar roving vehicle) guidance and navigation system that would provide the following displayed information to the crew: vehicle heading and heading to the LM, speed in kilometers per hour, total distance traveled in kilometers, and distance to the LM. Additional Details: here....

1972 March 8 - .
  • Olympic Games flag to be carried in the command module during the Apollo 16 mission - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 16. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; LM Weight. Summary: An Olympic Games flag 1.2 by 1.8 meters would be packed in a fireproof container and carried in the command module during the Apollo 16 mission. . Additional Details: here....

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