Encyclopedia Astronautica
LORL



lorlsmal.jpg
LORL Space Station
Large Orbital Research Station with docked Dynasoar ferry
Credit: US Air Force
lorlbig.jpg
LORL Space Station
Large Orbital Research Station with docked Dynasoar ferry
Credit: US Air Force
American manned space station. Study 1962. Large Orbiting Research Laboratory was a term applied to a number of NASA and USAF designs of the 1960's intended to succeed MORL. Typically these were rotating stations orbited in a single Saturn V launch.

NASA finally decided it preferred a large zero-G station, which became the baseline for studies by 1968.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • US Space Stations Wernher von Braun brought Noordung's rotating station design with him from Europe. This he popularized in the early 1950's in selling manned space flight to the American public. By the late 1950's von Braun's team favoured the spent-stage concept - which eventually flew as Skylab. By the mid-1960's, NASA was concentrating on modular, purpose-built, zero-G stations. These eventually flew as the International Space Station. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Saturn V American orbital launch vehicle. America's booster for the Apollo manned lunar landing. The design was frozen before a landing mode was selected; the Saturn V could be used for either Earth-Orbit-Rendezvous or Lunar-Orbit-Rendezvous methods. The vehicle ended up with the same payload capability as the 'too large' Nova. The basic diameter was dictated by the ceiling height at the Michoud factory selected for first stage manufacture. More...

LORL Chronology


1963 January 22 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Orbiting Space Station. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: LORL. Addressing an Institute of Aerospace Science meeting in New York, George von Tiesenhausen, Chief of Future Studies at NASA's Launch Operations Center, stated that by 1970 the United States would need an orbiting space station to launch and repair spacecraft. The station could also serve as a manned scientific laboratory. In describing the 91-m-long, 10-m-diameter structure, von Tiesenhausen said that the station could be launched in two sections using Saturn C-5 vehicles. The sections would be joined once in orbit.

1963 March 1 - .
  • Apollo-derived 18 crew space station. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: LORL. MSC proposed building a manned space station using hardware already under development for the Apollo program. MSC's plan called for an orbiting station with a capacity for 18 crewmen. Manning would be accomplished through successive flights of six-man, modified Apollo-type spacecraft that would rendezvous with the station in orbit.

1964 January 1964 - .
  • Space station study contracts for a 24-man orbital laboratory. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: LORL. MSC announced two space station study contracts to compare concepts for a 24-man orbital laboratory: one with the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation and another with Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc., Missiles and Space Systems Division. The stations were to be designed for a useful orbital lifetime of about five years, with periodic resupply and crew rotations.

1964 February 26 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Lockheed recommendations on a scientific space station program. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: LORL. The Lockheed-California Company released details of its recommendations to MSC on a scientific space station program. The study concluded that a manned station with a crew of 24 could be orbiting the Earth in 1968. Total cost of the program including logistics spacecraft and ground support was estimated at $2.6 billion for five years' operation. Lockheed's study recommended the use of a Saturn V to launch the unmanned laboratory into orbit and then launching a manned logistics vehicle to rendezvous and dock at the station.

1964 March 12 - .
  • Project Development Plan for the Manned Orbital Research Laboratory. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Apollo X; MORL; LORL. Edward Z. Gray, Advanced Manned Missions Director in the Office of Manned Space Flight, asked LaRC Director Charles J. Donlan to prepare a Project Development Plan for the Manned Orbital Research Laboratory, studies for which were already underway at the Center and under contract. This plan was needed as documentation for any possible decision to initiate an orbital research laboratory project. (Gray had also asked MSC to submit similar plans for an Apollo X, an Apollo Orbital Research Laboratory, and a Large Orbital Research Laboratory.) In addition to the Project Development Plan, Gray asked for system specifications for each candidate orbital laboratory system; both of these would form the basis for a project proposal with little delay 'should a climate exist in which a new project can be started.'

1964 April - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Rotating manned orbital research laboratory for a Saturn V launch vehicle. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: LORL. A study to recommend, define, and substantiate a logical approach for establishing a rotating manned orbital research laboratory for a Saturn V launch vehicle was made for MSC. The study was performed by the Lockheed-California Company, Burbank, California. It was based on the proposition that a large rotating space station would be one method by which the United States could maintain its position as a leader in space technology. Additional Details: here....

1964 August 3 - .
  • Preliminary draft report of the Ad Hoc Astronomy Panel of the Orbiting Research Laboratory (ORL). - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: LORL. Willis B. Foster, Director of Manned Space Science in the Office of Space Science and Applications, distributed a preliminary draft report of the Ad Hoc Astronomy Panel of the Orbiting Research Laboratory (ORL). The panel, which met on 26 October 1963 and again on 24 June 1964, was created to sound out the American scientific community on the validity of manned astronomy in space and to define astronomy objectives for the ORL, mission. Additional Details: here....

1965 July 30 - .
  • Final report on Lockheed modular multipurpose space station. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: LORL. The final report on a modular multipurpose space station was delivered to MSC by the Spacecraft Organization of Lockheed-California Company. The concept provided for a sequential evolution of space vehicles ranging from small Apollo-dependent laboratories, through larger, more versatile laboratories, to a semipermanent space station. Initial objectives of the study were to refine and optimize the design of the large orbital research laboratory. Additional Details: here....

1965 September - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Webb sees time as right to begin serious study of a Saturn V space station. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Spacecraft: Skylab; LORL; Orbital Workshop. During several visits to MSC, NASA Administrator James E. Webb raised a number of technical and policy questions relating to programs and management practices. Webb seemed particularly concerned about the difficulty of getting the program offices at Headquarters and the Centers to take an active interest in NASA's potential influence in the national economy and world affairs. Additional Details: here....

1965 December - .
  • Boeing report for the proposed multipurpose mission module. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: LORL. Summary: The Boeing Company submitted a utilization study report to MSC for the proposed multipurpose mission module. The report was one of 13 volumes prepared by Boeing's Aerospace Group Space Division under an MSC contract.. Additional Details: here....

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