Encyclopedia Astronautica
M2-F3



m2f2f104.jpg
M2F2 Lifting Body
M2F2 Lifting Body with F-104 Chase Plane
Credit: NASA
m2f3.gif
M2-F3
Credit: © Mark Wade
x24all.jpg
Lifting Bodies
Manned Lifting Bodies
Credit: NASA
m2f3b52.jpg
M2F3 Lifting Body
M2F3 Lifting Body Launch from B-52
Credit: NASA
m2f1.jpg
M2F1 Lifting Body
The M2-F1 was the first lifting body configuration tested. This glider was made from plywood. It was later succeeded by the M2-F2 metal version.
Credit: NASA
American manned spaceplane. 43 launches, 1966.07.12 to 1971.12.21 . The crashed M2-F2 was rebuilt as the M2-F3 with enlarged vertical stabilizers. Maximum speed achieved was Mach 1.6, top altitude 21,800 m.

The final X-30 National Aerospace Plane configuration seemed to owe much to the M2.

Spacecraft delta v: 1,000 m/s (3,200 ft/sec).

Gross mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb).
Height: 6.77 m (22.21 ft).
Span: 2.93 m (9.61 ft).
Thrust: 26.40 kN (5,935 lbf).
First Launch: 1966.07.12.
Last Launch: 1971.12.21.
Number: 43 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • XLR11 Reaction Motors, Thiokol Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. Out of Production. Launch thrust 26.67 kN. Rocket engine developed for X-1 in 1940s to break the sound barrier and used twenty years later to power experimental lifting bodies. Four combustion chambers. More...

See also
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Northrop American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Northrop, USA. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Alcohol Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Alcohol (C2H5OH) was the fuel used for the German V-2 rocket, and the first derivative rocket engines in the United States, Soviet Union, and China used it as well. Better performance was achieved by increasing the alcohol concentration in the post-war engines. But after better-performance rocket-grade kerosene was developed by Rocketdyne in the REAP program of 1953, use of alcohol was abandoned. More...

Bibliography
  • Gatland, Kenneth, Manned Spacecraft, Macmillan, New York, 1968.
  • Miller, Jay,, The X-Planes, Aerofax, Arlington, Texas, 1988.
  • Miller, Ron, The Dream Machines, Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 1993.
  • Zhelyez x-plane book,
  • Houchin II, Roy and Smith, Terry, "X-20 (7 articles)", Quest, 1994, Volume 3, Issue 4, page 4.
  • Peebles, Curtis, "The Origins of the US Space Shuttle - 1", Spaceflight, 1979, Volume 21, page 435.
  • NASA Report, Flight-determined stability and control characteristics of the M2-F3 lifting body vehicle, Web Address when accessed: here.

M2-F3 Chronology


1970 June 2 - .
  • M2 Flight 17 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 1. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: First M2-F3 flight. Maximum Speed - 755 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 218 sec..

1970 July 21 - .
  • M2 Flight 18 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 2. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 708 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 228 sec..

1970 November 2 - .
  • M2 Flight 19 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 690 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 236 sec..

1970 November 25 - .
  • M2 Flight 20 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: First powered flight. Maximum Speed - 859 kph. Maximum Altitude - 15819 m. Flight Time - 377 sec..

1971 February 9 - .
  • M2 Flight 21 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: M2-F3 flight 5. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 755 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 241 sec..

1971 February 26 - .
  • M2 Flight 22 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 6. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 821 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 348 sec..

1971 July 23 - .
  • M2 Flight 23 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 7. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 788 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18440 m. Flight Time - 353 sec..

1971 August 9 - .
  • M2 Flight 24 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1035 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18898 m. Flight Time - 415 sec..

1971 August 25 - .
  • M2 Flight 25 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 9. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: First M2-F3 supersonic flight. Maximum Speed - 1163 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20513 m. Flight Time - 390 sec..

1971 September 24 - .
  • M2 Flight 26 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 772 kph. Maximum Altitude - 12802 m. Flight Time - 210 sec..

1971 November 15 - .
  • M2 Flight 27 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Glide flight. Maximum Speed - 784 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13716 m. Flight Time - 215 sec..

1971 December 1 - .
  • M2 Flight 28 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 12. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1356 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21580 m. Flight Time - 391 sec..

1971 December 16 - .
  • M2 Flight 29 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 13. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 861 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14265 m. Flight Time - 451 sec..

1972 July 25 - .
  • M2 Flight 30 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 14. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1049 kph. Maximum Altitude - 18562 m. Flight Time - 420 sec..

1972 August 11 - .
  • M2 Flight 31 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 15. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1168 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20480 m. Flight Time - 375 sec..

1972 August 24 - .
  • M2 Flight 32 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 16. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1344 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20330 m. Flight Time - 376 sec..

1972 September 12 - .
  • M2 Flight 33 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 17. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 935 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14020 m. Flight Time - 387 sec..

1972 September 27 - .
  • M2 Flight 34 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 18. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1424 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20330 m. Flight Time - 366.5 sec..

1972 October 5 - .
  • M2 Flight 35 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 19. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1455 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20210 m. Flight Time - 376 sec..

1972 October 19 - .
  • M2 Flight 36 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: M2-F3 flight 20. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 961 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14360 m. Flight Time - 359 sec..

1972 November 1 - .
  • M2 Flight 37 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: M2-F3 flight 21. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1292 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21730 m. Flight Time - 378 sec..

1972 November 9 - .
  • M2 Flight 38 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: M2-F3 flight 22. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 961 kph. Maximum Altitude - 14260 m. Flight Time - 364 sec..

1972 November 21 - .
  • M2 Flight 39 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: M2-F3 flight 23. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1524 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20330 m. Flight Time - 377 sec..

1972 November 29 - .
  • M2 Flight 40 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: M2-F3 flight 24. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1432 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20570 m. Flight Time - 357 sec..

1972 December 6 - .
  • M2 Flight 41 - . Crew: Powell. Payload: M2-F3 flight 25. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Powell. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Maximum Speed - 1265 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20820 m. Flight Time - 332 sec..

1972 December 13 - .
  • M2 Flight 42 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 26. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Fastest M2-F3 flight. Maximum Speed - 1712 kph. Maximum Altitude - 20330 m. Flight Time - 383 sec..

1972 December 21 - .
  • M2 Flight 43 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: M2-F3 flight 27. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: Last M2-F3 flight, also highest. Maximum Speed - 1377 kph. Maximum Altitude - 21790 m. Flight Time - 390 sec..

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