Encyclopedia Astronautica
Magion



magion.jpg
Magion
Czech earth magnetosphere satellite. 5 launches, 1978.10.24 (Magion 1) to 1996.08.29 (Magion 5). The Czechoslovak satellite MAGION researched the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth.

Gross mass: 39 kg (85 lb).
First Launch: 1978.10.24.
Last Launch: 1996.08.29.
Number: 5 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Kosmos 3 In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...
  • Tsiklon The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Kosmos 3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • Tsiklon Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya, in variants with Blocks ML, 2BL, or SO-L third stages according to payload. More...
  • Kosmos 11K65M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Definitive and prolific production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-14 IRBM. After further development at NPO Polyot (Omsk, Chief Designer A S Klinishkov), the modified Kosmos-3M added a restartable second stage with an orientation system. This booster was launched form two 'Cusovaya' launch complexes from 1967. The second stage used low thrust rockets using gas generator output to adjust the final velocity of the stage More...
  • Tsiklon-3 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The Tsyklon 3 was developed in 1970-1977 as a part of a program to reduce the number of Soviet booster types. The first two stages were derived from the 8K68 version of the R-36 ICBM, while the restartable third stage was derived from that of the R-36-O. Compared to the Tsyklon 2, the launch vehicle increased payload to 4 metric tons, provided for completely automated launch operations, and had increased orbital injection accuracy. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • RVSN Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Raketniye Voiska Stratigcheskovo Naznacheniya (Russian Strategic Rocket Forces), Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • Intercosmos International cooperative satellites with a variety of missions, launched by Soviet boosters. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...
  • Plesetsk LC32/2 Tsiklon launch complex. Construction of this highly-automated launch complex for the Tsiklon-3 launch vehicle started in 1970. The complex was designed by the Transmash Design bureau led by Chief Designer V N Solovyev. The complex consisted of two pads. The vehicle was assembled and integrated with its payload in the assembly building. It was then delivered to the launch pad by railway in a horizontal position. A launch pad erector placed the rocket into vertical position. No service tower was needed for the storable-propellant booster. More...

Magion Chronology


1978 October 24 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65055-106.
  • Magion 1 - . Payload: S2. Mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Nation: Czech Republic. Agency: RVSN. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Magion. Decay Date: 1981-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11110 . COSPAR: 1978-099B. Apogee: 762 km (473 mi). Perigee: 404 km (251 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 96.40 min. Ionospheric, magnetospheric studies. The Czechoslovak satellite MAGION was launched into orbit by the Soviet spacecraft Intercosmos 18. It forms a part of the scientific programme of Intercosmos 18, launched from USSR territory on 24 Oct 1978. MAGION was separated into an autonomous orbit on 14 Nov 1978. General function: Reasearch of the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth (magnetosphere-ionosphere satellite).

1989 September 28 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Magion 2 - . Payload: S2-AK. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Czech Republic. Agency: UNKS. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Magion. USAF Sat Cat: 20281 . COSPAR: 1989-080B. Apogee: 2,441 km (1,516 mi). Perigee: 498 km (309 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 115.30 min. Deployed from Intercosmos 24 10/3/89; examined signal propogation from Intercosmos 24. Research of the magnetosphere and the ionosphere of the Earth. The Czechoslovak satellite Magion 2 was launched into orbit by the Soviet spacecraft Intercosmos 24. Magion 2 forms a part of the scientific programme of Intercosmos 24 (project Aktivnyj) Exe cution of the scientific programme of the 'Aktivny' project in conjunction with Intercosmos-24, permitting simultaneous spatially separating investigations of plasma processes in circumterrestrial space.

1991 December 18 - . 03:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Magion 3 - . Payload: S2-AP. Mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Nation: Czech Republic. Agency: UNKS. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Magion. USAF Sat Cat: 21835 . COSPAR: 1991-086E. Apogee: 2,943 km (1,828 mi). Perigee: 436 km (270 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 120.20 min. Separated from Intercosmos 25 on 12/28/91; geophysical. Research of magnetosphere nad the ionosphere of the Earth by passive and active methods. Launched on 18 Dec 1991. The Czechoslovak satellite Magion 3 forms, together with the spacecraft Intercosmos 25, part of the Apex scientific project. Magion 3 was sep arated into an autonomous orbit on 28 Dec 1991. Magion 3 was launched into orbit by the Soviet spacecraft Intercosmos 25.

1995 August 2 - . 23:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M 2BL N15000-294 10M127S.
  • Magion 4 - . Payload: S2. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Czech Republic. Agency: VKS. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Magion. USAF Sat Cat: 23646 . COSPAR: 1995-039F. Apogee: 175,449 km (109,018 mi). Perigee: 17,068 km (10,605 mi). Inclination: 70.3000 deg. Period: 5,454.00 min. Summary: Deployed from Interbol-1 on 8/3/95; solar wind studies in conjunction with Interbol-1..

1996 August 29 - . 05:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M 2BL.
  • Magion 5 - . Payload: S2. Mass: 58 kg (127 lb). Nation: Czech Republic. Agency: RAKA. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Magion. USAF Sat Cat: 24292 . COSPAR: 1996-050B. Apogee: 18,608 km (11,562 mi). Perigee: 1,366 km (848 mi). Inclination: 63.6000 deg. Period: 347.20 min. Summary: The S2-A Magion 5 sub-satellite deployed from Interbol-2 on 30 August 1996 and conducted auroral studies in conjunction with Interbol-2. It was believed lost due to a solar panel failure until it was revived on the 14 May 1998..

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