Encyclopedia Astronautica
Meteor



meteor.jpg
Meteor
Meteor satellite. Meteor-M and Meteor-Priroda were similar.
Russian earth weather satellite. 11 launches, 1964.08.28 (Cosmos 44) to 1969.02.01 (Meteor). The first Soviet weather satellite. Development began with a decree of 30 October 1960.

Work began in 1961 at OKB-586 GKOT; in 1962 it was transferred to NII-627. Final development was completed in 1964. The Meteor system subcontractors were:

  • VNII-380 GKRE Rosselevich - television
  • OKB Geofizika GKOT - Khrustalev - radiometer
  • NII-648 Mnatsakanian - radio technical system

The first of four launches were on Vostok-M boosters at 81.2 degree inclinations. The system finally was accepted for military service and went into operation in 1969.

Gross mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb).
First Launch: 1964.08.28.
Last Launch: 1969.02.01.
Number: 11 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Meteor Family of Polish sounding rockets developed by the Polish Aviation Institute for the Polish Hydro-Meteorological institute beginning in 1962. More...
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Vostok 8A92M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Second generation space systems required injection of lighter but higher-altitude Meteor and other satellite payloads into sun-synchronous orbits. The 8A92M version was developed for this purpose. First use was the Meteor launch on 29 June 1977. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...
  • VNIIEM Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. VNII Elektromekhaniki (Russian abbreviation for All-Union Scientific-Research Institute for Electro-Mechanics), Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..
  • Siddiqi, Asif A, The Soviet Space Race With Apollo, University Press of Florida, 2003.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...
  • Plesetsk LC41/1 R-7 launch complex. Code named 'Lesobaza', this was the first complex completed at Plesetsk, being declared ready for military service with the R-7A ICBM in November 1959. The complex followed the design of the protoype facility built at Area 31 of Baikonur and included its own residential area for military personnel and assembly buildings for launchers and payloads. More...

Meteor Chronology


1960 October 30 - .
  • Development begun of Meteor, the first Soviet weather satellite. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Meteor. Summary: Work began in 1961 at OKB-586 GKOT; in 1962 it was transferred to NII-627. Final development was completed in 1964..

1961 October 30 - .
  • Molniya-1 and Meteor-1 satellites authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Molniya-1; Molniya-2; Meteor. Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On approval of work on the Molniya-1 communications satellite and Meteor-1 weather satellite' was issued. Thedecree authorised work on the Molniya-1M production model, providing international communications on the centimetre band. But the protoype Molniya-1 worked so well that it was taken directly into service, and the -1M was skipped.

1961 October 31 - . LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65S3.
  • Kosmos 65S3 intermediate launch vehicle development authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Meteor; Strela-1; Strela-2. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On the Creation of the Space Carrier 65S3--start of work on a launch vehicle based on the R-14 for launch of the Meteor, Strela, and Pchela satellites.' was issued..

1964 August 28 - . 16:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92M T15000-05.
  • Cosmos 44 - . Payload: Meteor no. 1. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. USAF Sat Cat: 876 . COSPAR: 1964-053A. Apogee: 778 km (483 mi). Perigee: 599 km (372 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 98.50 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1965 February 26 - . 05:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92M R15000-09.
  • Cosmos 58 - . Payload: Meteor no. 2. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1990-02-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 1097 . COSPAR: 1965-014A. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 333 km (206 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Summary: Probable weather satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1965 December 17 - . 02:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92M R15000-31.
  • Cosmos 100 - . Payload: Meteor no. 3. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 2002-02-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 1843 . COSPAR: 1965-106A. Apogee: 547 km (339 mi). Perigee: 485 km (301 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 95.00 min. Summary: Probable weather satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1966 May 11 - . 14:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 118 - . Payload: Meteor no. 4. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1988-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 2168 . COSPAR: 1966-038A. Apogee: 339 km (210 mi). Perigee: 316 km (196 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 91.10 min. Summary: Probable weather satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1966 June 25 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92M N15000-21.
  • Cosmos 122 - . Payload: Meteor no. 5. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1989-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 2254 . COSPAR: 1966-057A. Apogee: 388 km (241 mi). Perigee: 371 km (230 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1967 February 28 - . 14:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 144 - . Payload: Meteor no. 6. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1982-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 2695 . COSPAR: 1967-018A. Apogee: 644 km (400 mi). Perigee: 574 km (356 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 96.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1967 April 27 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 156 - . Payload: Meteor no. 7. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1989-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 2762 . COSPAR: 1967-039A. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 368 km (228 mi). Inclination: 81.1000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Summary: Worked with Cosmos 144. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1967 July 1 - . LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Tsiklon-2 launch vehicle authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: US-A; IS-A; Meteor. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On use of the R-36-based launcher for the Kosmos and Meteor satellites' was issued..

1967 October 24 - . 22:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 184 - . Payload: Meteor no. 8. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1989-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3010 . COSPAR: 1967-102A. Apogee: 414 km (257 mi). Perigee: 409 km (254 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1968 March 14 - . 09:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 206 - . Payload: Meteor no. 9. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1989-04-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 3150 . COSPAR: 1968-019A. Apogee: 405 km (251 mi). Perigee: 396 km (246 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.60 min. Summary: Visual, IR cloud cover images. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1968 June 12 - . 13:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 226 - . Payload: Meteor no. 10. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1983-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3282 . COSPAR: 1968-049A. Apogee: 639 km (397 mi). Perigee: 579 km (359 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 96.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1969 February 1 - . 12:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. FAILURE: Upper stage failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Meteor - . Payload: Meteor no. 11. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Meteor. COSPAR: F690201A.

1970 January 2 - . LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Tsiklon 3 launch vehicle development authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Tselina-D; Meteor. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On the Creation of the Carrier-Rocket 11K68 on The Basis of 11K69 RN and S5M Stage for Launch of Space Apparatus 'Tselina' and .Meteor'--approval of work on the Tsiklon-3 RN.

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