Encyclopedia Astronautica
Meteor-Priroda



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Meteor-Priroda
Credit: NASA
Russian earth land resources satellite. 5 launches, 1974.07.09 (Meteor 1-18) to 1981.07.10 (Meteor 1-31).

Soviet development of remote sensing systems in support of the national economy began with a decree in December 1971 'On development work for research on earth resources using space technology'. The result was Meteor-Priroda 1, launched on 9 July 74 into a 950 km orbit by a Vostok-2M rocket, The satellite, derived from the basic Meteor weather satellite, was equipped with a radio-television system using an optico-mechanical sensor by VNIIEM Minelektrotekhprom, A G Yosifyan, General designer. This was followed from 18 May 1976 by Meteor-Priroda 2-1, in 650 km sun-synchronous 97 degree orbits. Receiving stations were located at Goskomgidormet facilities in Moscow, Novosibirsk, Khabarovsk.

Gross mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb).
First Launch: 1974.07.09.
Last Launch: 1981.07.10.
Number: 5 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Meteor Family of Polish sounding rockets developed by the Polish Aviation Institute for the Polish Hydro-Meteorological institute beginning in 1962. More...
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Vostok 8A92M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Second generation space systems required injection of lighter but higher-altitude Meteor and other satellite payloads into sun-synchronous orbits. The 8A92M version was developed for this purpose. First use was the Meteor launch on 29 June 1977. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...
  • VNIIEM Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. VNII Elektromekhaniki (Russian abbreviation for All-Union Scientific-Research Institute for Electro-Mechanics), Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..
  • Siddiqi, Asif A, The Soviet Space Race With Apollo, University Press of Florida, 2003.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...

Meteor-Priroda Chronology


1971 December - .
  • Meteor-Priroda authorised - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. Summary: Soviet development of remote sensing systems in support of the national economy began with a decree 'On development work for research on earth resources using space technology'..

1971 December 21 - .
  • Meteor-Priroda satellite authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. Summary: Decree 'On expansion of Work on Research of the Earth's Natural Resources by Space Systems' was issued..

1974 July 9 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-18 - . Payload: Meteor-Priroda no. 1. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. USAF Sat Cat: 7363 . COSPAR: 1974-052A. Apogee: 909 km (564 mi). Perigee: 883 km (548 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.90 min. Summary: Conducted experimental work in studying the natural resources of the earth. Also tested plasma engine.

1976 May 15 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-25 - . Payload: Meteor-Priroda s/n 2-1. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. USAF Sat Cat: 8845 . COSPAR: 1976-043A. Apogee: 884 km (549 mi). Perigee: 829 km (515 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Continuation of experimental work in studying the natural resources of the earth..

1977 June 29 - . 18:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-28 - . Payload: Meteor-Priroda s/n 2-2. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. Decay Date: 1993-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 10113 . COSPAR: 1977-057A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 332 km (206 mi). Inclination: 97.4000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Summary: Continuation of experimental work in studying the natural resources of the earth. Acquisition of meteorological information required for use in the operational weather service. .

1979 January 25 - . 05:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-29 - . Payload: Meteor-Priroda s/n 2-3. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. USAF Sat Cat: 11251 . COSPAR: 1979-005A. Apogee: 596 km (370 mi). Perigee: 546 km (339 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 96.10 min. Obtaining information needed for research into the natural resources of the earth and the development of methods for remote sensing of the underlying surface, and obtaining meteorological information. In addition to Soviet apparatus, carried scientific ap paratus from the German Democratic Republic.

1981 July 10 - . 05:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-31 - . Payload: Meteor-Priroda. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. USAF Sat Cat: 12585 . COSPAR: 1981-065A. Apogee: 612 km (380 mi). Perigee: 574 km (356 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 96.50 min. Also performed earth resources tasks. Acquisition of information required for continued investigation of the natural resources of the earth; development of remote sensing methods for measuring the parameters of the atmosphere and the earth's surface beneath the satellite. Carried scientific i nstruments developed in the People's Republic of Bulgaria, as well as Soviet equipment. Objects 1595 and 1596 launched by a single rocket.

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