Encyclopedia Astronautica
Mir



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Soyuz-Mir-Kvant
Soyuz-Mir-Kvant-Soyuz Isometric
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Mir against Space
The Mir station seen against space during one of the Shuttle-Mir missions.
Credit: NASA
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Mir 1997
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Mir
Mir base block.
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Mir simulator
Mir simulator at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Mir
View of Mir in space.
Credit: NASA
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Shuttle/Mir 1993
ISS Phase One Shuttle/Mir. The US Space Shuttle docks with Russia's "Mir" space station.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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Mir Cutaway
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Mir Complex Cutaway
Cutaway drawing of the Mir space station.
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Mir Phase 5
Configuration of the Mir space station in the fifth phase of assembly.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Orlan DM Spacesuit
Orlan DM spacesuit used on Mir.
Credit: Andy Salmon
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SPK MMU
SPK Manned Manoeuvring Unit
Credit: Andy Salmon
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Mir against Horizon
The Mir station seen against the horizon during one of the Shuttle-Mir missions.
Credit: NASA
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Toru
TORU control station, exhibited at the Russian Pavilion, Hannover Expo 2000.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Mir 1985
Mir according to 1985 Department of Defense report.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos
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Soviet Platform 85
Soviet artists concept of orbital platform incorporating the Salyut 7 station, 1985
Credit: DoD via Marcus Lindroos
Russian manned space station. One launch, 1986.02.20. Improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station with one aft docking port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station.

Mir lasted 15 years, the complex in the end consisting of 7 modules with 11.5 metric tons of scientific equipment. It cost $220 to $240 million per year to keep in operation.

The design of an improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station was authorized as part of the third generation of Soviet space systems in a 17 February 1976 decree. At that time it was planned that the two stations (DOS-7 and DOS-8) would be equipped with two docking ports at either end of the station and an additional two ports at the sides of the forward small diameter compartment. By the time of the draft project in August 1978 this had evolved to the final Mir configuration of one aft port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station. Up to that time it was planned that the ports would provide docking positions for 7 metric ton modules derived from the Soyuz spacecraft. These would use the Soyuz propulsion module, as in Soyuz and Progress, but would be equipped with long laboratory modules in place of the descent module and orbital module.

Following the decision to cancel Chelomei's manned Almaz military space station program, a resolution of February 1979 consolidated the programs, with the docking ports to be reinforced to accommodate 20 metric ton space station modules based on Chelomei's TKS manned ferry spacecraft. NPO Energia was made responsible for the overall space station, but subcontracted the work to KB Salyut due to the press of in-house work on Energia, Salyut 7, Soyuz-T, and Progress. The subcontractor began work in the summer of 1979, with drawings being released in 1982-1983. New systems incorporated into the station included the Salyut 5B digital flight control computer and gyrodyne flywheels (taken from Almaz), and the new Kurs automatic rendezvous system, Altair satellite communications system, Elektron oxygen generators, and Vozdukh carbon dioxide scrubbers.

By early 1984 all work on Mir ground to a halt as all resources were put on getting the Buran space shuttle into flight test. This changed in the spring 1984 when Glushko was called into the office of the Central Committee's Secretary for Space and Defense and ordered to orbit Mir by the 27th Communist Party Congress in the spring of 1986. By the end of 1984 the static and dynamic test models of the station had been completed. The ground test model of the station was delivered in December 1984. The use of this full-fidelity test article, an approach taken on the Almaz program, was new to the civilian DOS project.

A major problem was that the station ended up one metric ton heavier than designed due to the final weight of the electrical cabling Even after removing most of the experimental equipment (it would have to be delivered to the station later by ferry craft) it still exceeded the performance of the Proton booster to the planned 65 degree inclination orbit. The decision was finally taken in January 1985 to use the same 51.6 degree orbit as Salyut, although this would reduce photographic coverage of the Soviet Union. Meanwhile problems with development of the new software for the Salyut 5B computer lead to the decision to launch Mir with the old analogue Argon computer from Salyut DOS-17K. The digital computer would have to be installed later in orbit.

By April 1985 it was clear that the planned processing flow could not be followed and still make the spring 1986 launch date. The decision was taken on Cosmonautics Day (April 12) to ship the flight model to Baikonur and conduct the systems testing and integration there. Mir arrived at the launch site on 6 May 1985. 1100 of 2500 cables required rework based on results of testing of the ground test model at Khrunichev. In October 1985 Mir was rolled outside of its clean room to conduct communications tests of the Altair system with the Cosmos 1700 satellite already in orbit.

The first launch attempt on 16 February 1996 at very low temperatures was scrubbed when the spacecraft communications failed. The second attempt on 20 February was successful. The political deadline had been met.

The early launch of Mir left the planners without Soyuz spacecraft or modules to launch to it. The decision was taken to launch Soyuz T-15 on a unique dual station mission. The Soyuz would first dock with Salyut 7, which was dead in space, and completely repair the station. They then would fly in their Soyuz to Mir, and put it into initial operation. This spectacular mission marked a new maturity in the Soviet space program.

Spacecraft Description

The Mir base block was the backbone of the Mir space station. It was the principal space station control element and contained the main computers, communications equipment, kitchen and hygiene facilities, and primary living quarters. The module provided 90 cubic meters of habitable volume. The base block included six docking ports used as permanent attachment points for the other station modules and for temporary docking of manned and unmanned resupply ships.

Mir was equipped with its own orbital maneuvering engines. These could not be used after the arrival of Kvant (the first station module), but the base block still provided the principal propellant storage tanks and primary attitude control for the entire space station.

The base block was divided into four compartments, designated as the working, transfer, intermediate and assembly compartments. All but the assembly compartment were pressurized. A small airlock was also available for experiments or for the release of small satellites or refuse.

  • Working Compartment (7.67 m long x 4.2 m diameter): The working compartment was the main habitable volume on Mir and consisted of two cylinders connected by a tapered conical section. The interior of the working compartment was divided into an operations zone and a living area. The operations zone occupied the smaller diameter section and was the control area for the entire Mir complex. Monitoring and command of the base block systems, scientific equipment and mechanisms were carried out in this area. The living area of the working compartment contained the galley, individual crew cabins, hygiene facilities and trash storage. Medical monitoring equipment and a bicycle ergometer were located in the conical portion of the working compartment. Spatial orientations of 'floor' and 'ceiling' were provided by dark green carpet on the 'floor', light green walls, and a white 'ceiling' with florescent lamps. The arrangement of equipment and the interior finish of the working compartment were designed to reinforce this orientation. The living area used the same spatial orientation concepts, but soft pastel colors were used to imply a home-like atmosphere.

  • Transfer Compartment (2.2 m diameter X 2.84 m long): The spherical transfer compartment was located at the forward end of the working compartment. It provided four radial docking ports, spaced at 90 degree angles, for additional station modules. A fifth axial docking port at the front of the station was dedicated to use by visiting transport spacecraft

  • Intermediate Compartment: The intermediate compartment was a 2 meter diameter pressurized tunnel that connected the working compartment to the aft docking port. The tunnel was located in the centre of the non-pressurized assembly compartment. The aft docking port was used for visiting transport vehicles until permanently occupied by the Kvant module (transports thereafter docked with aft port of Kvant).

  • Assembly Compartment. Main engine and fuel tanks were located in the annular non-pressurized assembly compartment. Externally, this assembly supported the station's satellite relay antenna, docking radar antennas, lights and optical sensors.

Spacecraft systems

Power to the base block was initially provided by 2 x 38 sq. meter arrays providing 9 kW. A third array was added to the base block in 1987 to bring total power to 10.1 kW. Additional power from visiting Progress-M and Soyuz-TM vehicles and other station modules added to the station's total supply as it grew. The arrays charged 12 NiCd batteries. The base block was equipped with an integrated refuelable pressure-fed propulsion system consisting of 32 x 137 N attitude control thrusters and 2 x 2.9 kN thrusters for orbital maneuver. The system used N2O4/UDMH hypergolic propellants.

The life support system maintained the station's environment at 18-28 degrees. C and 20-70 percent humidity. The Vozdukh electrolytic system was used to recycle station atmosphere with a backup chemical scrubbing system. Station pointing could be controlled to within 15 arc-min.

Two primary flight control computers provide most station control functions. Star sensors, infrared Earth horizon sensors, sun sensors, magnetometers, gyros, and accelerometers were used for attitude determination. Communication with the ground was via 11-14 GHz links either directly to ground stations or through Luch geosynchronous relay satellites. Rendezvous and docking was conducted automatically by transport spacecraft through use of the Kurs system transponders located at each docking port Mir.

Equipment originally delivered with the base block included: - Splav-2 crystal growth facility - Zona zone melt facility - Kashtan electrophoresis unit - Bulgarian Rozhen photometer - Spektr-256 and MKS-M spectrometers - Pion-M multipurpose physics unit (41 kg) - Biryuza semiconductor materials unit Ruchei electrophoresis installation - Yantar metal coating equipment - Mariye magnetic spectrometer - Korund furnace (136 kg).

An extensive suite of Earth observation instruments was operational on the Mir space station. Although only a pair of devices were carried abroad Mir at its launch in 1986, sixteen major systems were deployed to the Mir core module or the Kvant 2 and Kristal auxiliary modules:

Mir Core Module:

  • EFO-1 electronic photometer for studies of atmospheric aerosols and dust
  • Haselblad camera
  • KATE-140 topographic camera (50-m resolution)
  • MKS-M multi-band spectrometer (0.4-0.9 micrometers
  • Spektr-256 multi-band spectrometer (256 channels in visible and infrared)
  • Terra impulse photometer for the study of atmospheric optical emissions

Kvant 2 Module:

  • AFM-2 for study of the atmosphere and pollutants
  • Gamma 2 video spectropolarimeter
  • ITS-7D spectrometer
  • KAP-350 topographic camera
  • MKF-GMA multi-spectral camera (0.5-0.9 micrometer, 10-15 m resolution)
  • MKS-M2 multi-band spectrometer

Kristal Module:

  • Priroda 5 multi-purpose high resolution (5 m) camera

Plans call for the launch in late 1995 of the Priroda (Nature) auxiliary module to augment substantially the Earth observation capabilities of the Mir space station.

The Mir space station was also equipped with a wide assortment of electric furnaces and other devices and with the added benefit of crew participation. One of the primary objectives of the Kristal module, attached to Mir in 1990, was to support microgravity experiments. Despite the fact that microgravity conditions were typically 10-100 times worse on a manned versus an unmanned spacecraft, man-tended experiments on Soviet-built space stations, some lasting more than a week, proved to be quite successful. The other principal drawback of materials science research on Mir was the extremely limited capability of returning samples to Earth. This was ameliorated in late November, 1990, when the Progress M recoverable capsule was successfully tested for the first time. This system was used approximately twice each year, returning up to 150 kg of cargo (including the product of materials science research) per mission.

In 1987 three electric furnaces were delivered to Mir: Korund-1M, Kristallizator, and Mirror-Beam. These were augmented or superseded in 1990 by the five new furnaces installed on the Kristal module: Krater V, Kristallizator, Optizon, Zona 2, and Zona 3. Other Mir materials science devices were used for electrophoresis (Aynur-Kristall, EFU Robot, Ruchey, and Svetlana), protein crystallization (Aynur-Mir), and miscellaneous experiments (Biostoykost, Svetoblok, and Yantar). Most materials science experiments were of Russian origin, but some were created by Ukrainian specialists.

Characteristics

Crew Size: 12. RCS Coarse No x Thrust: 32 x 135 N. RCS Fine No x Thrust: Gyrodyne reaction wheels. Electric System: 2.50 average kW.

Gross mass: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 19,800 kg (43,600 lb).
Height: 13.13 m (43.07 ft).
Span: 29.73 m (97.53 ft).
Thrust: 5.88 kN (1,322 lbf).
Specific impulse: 305 s.
First Launch: 1986.02.19.
Number: 1 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Mir complex Russian manned space station. Assembled 1986 to 1996. Designation given to the entire Mir space station. More...

Associated Engines
  • KRD-79 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 3.090 kN. Salyut 6, 7and Mir orbital propulsion maneuvering engine. In Production. Probably derived from engine of propulsion system KDU-426. Pressure fed engine. More...

See also
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes. More...
  • Proton-K Russian orbital launch vehicle. Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorised development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...

Associated Propellants
  • N2O4/UDMH Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Shuttle-Mir Web, NASA, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Matson, Dr Wayne R, Editor, Cosmonautics - A Colorful History, Cosmos Books, Washington DC, 1994.
  • Wilson, Keith T., "EVA Log 1965-1997", Spaceflight, 1998, Volume 40, page 85.
  • Kaesmann, Ferdinand, et. al., "Proton - Development of A Russian Launch Vehicle", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 1998, Volume 51, page 3.
  • Portree, David S. F., Mir Hardware Heritage, NASA Reference Publication 1357, March 1995.
  • Vladimirov, A, "Tablitsa zapuskov RN 'Proton' i 'Proton K'", Novosti kosmonavtiki, 1998, Issue 10, page 25.
  • Hendrickx, Bart, "The Origins and Evolution of Mir and Its Modules", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 51, P. 203-222, 1998..
  • Siddiqi, Asif A, The Soviet Space Race With Apollo, University Press of Florida, 2003.
  • NASA Report, Mir Hardware Heritage, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Mir Mission Chronicles, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Mir Phase 1 Program Joint Report, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Shuttle-Mir: The United States and Russia Share History's Highest Stage, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, NASA Factsheet The International Space Station: Benefits from the Shuttle-Mir Program (IS-1998-08-ISS010JSC), Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Technical assessment of Mir-1 life support hardware for the international space station, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Quick look report of acceleration measurements on Mir Space Station during Mir-16, Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Mir Chronology


1976 February 17 - . LV Family: Energia; N1.
  • Energia; Buran; Mir; Luch; Potok approved; N1 formally cancelled. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Buran; Mir; Mir-2; Gamma; Potok; Luch. Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On work on Energia-Buran, DOS-7K nos. 7 and 8, Gamma. Geyzer (Potok), and Altair (Luch) and cancellation of the N1' was issued. The design of an improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station was authorised as part of the third generation of Soviet space systems in a decree. At that time it was planned that the two stations (DOS-7 and DOS-8) would be equipped with two docking ports at either end of the station and an additional two ports at the sides of the forward small diameter compartment. Luch and Potok were elements of the second generation global command and control system (GKKRS) deployed in the first half of the 1980's. Luch satellites, analogous to the US TDRS, provided communications service to the Mir space station, Buran space shuttle, Soyuz-TM spacecraft, military satellites, and the TsUPK ground control center. They also served to provide mobile fleet communications for the Soviet Navy. Additional Details: here....

1978 August - .
  • Mir draft project completed - . Nation: USSR. Program: Mir. Spacecraft: Mir. By this time Mir had evolved to the final configuration of one aft port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station. It was planned that the ports would provide docking positions for 7 tonne modules derived from the Soyuz spacecraft. These would use the Soyuz propulsion module, as in Soyuz and Progress, but would be equipped with long laboratory modules in place of the descent module and orbital module.

1979 February - .
  • Almaz cancelled and consolidated with Mir - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei. Spacecraft: Mir; Almaz OPS-2; TKS. Following the decision to cancel Chelomei's manned Almaz military space station programme, a resolution consolidated the programs, with the Mir docking ports to be reinforced to accommodate 20 tonne space station modules based on Chelomei's TKS manned ferry spacecraft. NPO Energia was made responsible for the overall space station, but subcontracted the work to KB Salyut due to the press of in-house work on Energia, Salyut 7, Soyuz-T, and Progress. The subcontractor began work in the summer of 1979.

1982 During the Year - .
  • Mir drawing release - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Mir. Drawings were released in 1982-1983. New systems incorporated into the station included the Salyut 5B digital flight control computer and gyrodyne flywheels (taken from Almaz), and the new Kurs automatic rendezvous system, Altair satellite communications system, Elektron oxygen generators, and Vozdukh carbon dioxide scrubbers.

1982 - During the year - .
  • Mir drawing release - . Nation: USSR. Program: Mir. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Drawings for the Mir space station are released during the course of 1982 and 1983 and construction of the spacecraft and its systems are begun..

1983 November - .
  • 37KS Modules for Mir cancelled, replaced by FGB modules. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: 37KS; Kvant; Spektr; Priroda; Kristall; Kvant-2; Mir. Design and fabrication reached an advanced phase when it was decided that the separate tug concept resulted in too low a net scientific payload (3 tonnes). Integrating the tug with the module was expected to increase this to 5 tonnes and provide some reserve engine capability at Mir and additional pressurised volume. Accordingly the 37KS modules for Mir were cancelled. Work on the 37KE experimental module (Kvant) and the 37KB Buran modules continued. The function of the 37KS modules was taken up by modules by KB Salyut derived from the FGB. A competing proposal from NPO Energia for a unified spacecraft that combined the 37KS module with the engine unit of Mir was rejected.

1984 Spring - .
  • Glushko ordered to launch Mir by March 1986 - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glushko. Program: Mir. Spacecraft: Mir. By early 1984 work on Mir ground to a halt as all resources were put on getting the Buran space shuttle into flight test. This changed in the spring 1984 when Glushko was called into the office of the Central Committee's Secretary for Space and Defence and ordered to orbit Mir by the 27th Communist Party Congress in the spring of 1986.

1984 December - .
  • Ground test articles of Mir completed - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Mir. By the end of 1984 the static and dynamic test models of the station had been completed. The ground test model of the station was delivered in December 1984. The use of this full-fidelity test article, an approach taken on the Almaz program, was new to the civilian DOS project.

1985 April 12 - .
  • Decision to ship Mir to Baikonur - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: It was clear that the planned processing flow could not be followed and still make the spring 1986 launch date. The decision was taken on Cosmonautics Day to ship the flight model to Baikonur and conduct the systems testing and integration there..

1985 May 6 - .
  • Mir space station delivered to Baikonur - . Nation: USSR. Program: Mir. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: 1100 of 2500 cables required rework based on results of testing of the ground test model at Khrunichev..

1985 August 2 - . 07:15 GMT - .
1985 October - .
  • Mir free-air communications tests. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Mir. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Mir was rolled outside of its clean room to conduct communications tests of the Altair system with the Cosmos 1700 satellite already in orbit..

1986 February 16 - .
  • First attempt to launch Mir. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Mir. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: The first launch attempt at very low temperatures was scrubbed when the spacecraft communications failed..

1986 February 19 - . 21:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 337-01.
  • Mir - . Payload: Mir s/n 127-01. Mass: 20,100 kg (44,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Mir . Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 16609 . COSPAR: 1986-017A. Apogee: 395 km (245 mi). Perigee: 387 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. The core module of Russia's new space station was placed in an initial orbit of 172 x 301 km. It was established in its operational orbit on 6 March. It passed just 10 km from Salyut 7 on 8 March. First use of the geosynchronous Luch relay sattelite for communications with the station was on 29 March. Equipment launched with the core module included:

    • Splav-2 crystal growth facility
    • Zona zone melt facility
    • Kashtan electrophoresis unit
    • Bulgarian Rozhen photometer
    • Spektr-256 and MKS-M spectrometers
    • Pion-M multipurpose physics unit (41 kg)
    • Biryuza semiconductor materials unit
    • -Ruchei electrophoresis installation
    • Yantar metal coating equipment
    • Mariye magnetic spectrometer
    • Korund furnace (136 kg)

    Total costs of Mir from February 1986 through return of Soyuz TM-9 in April 1989 were given as 1.471 billion rubles. This sum ncluded Mir, Kvant, all Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, and 2 new modules. As of April 1989 50% of the scientific equipment was inoperable and the interior was cramped due to lack of extension modules. Electric power supply problems were first reported in April 1989 (batteries would not hold charge from panels). Mass 27,300 kg as of January 1990. Complex mass with Kvant-2 65,790 kg; with Kristall, Soyuz TM, and Progress M, 89,990 kg. Additional Details: here....


1986 May 28 - . 05:43 GMT - .
1986 May 31 - . 04:57 GMT - .
1987 April 11 - . 19:41 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-2-1 - . Crew: Romanenko; Laveykin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.15 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Romanenko; Laveykin. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Removed bag from docking unit that interfered with Kvant docking..

1987 June 12 - . 16:55 GMT - .
1987 June 16 - . 15:30 GMT - .
1988 February 26 - . 09:00 GMT - .
1988 June 30 - . 05:33 GMT - .
1988 October 20 - . 05:59 GMT - .
1988 December 9 - . 09:57 GMT - .
1990 January 8 - . 20:23 GMT - .
1990 January 11 - . 18:01 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-5-2 - . Crew: Viktorenko; Serebrov. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.12 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Viktorenko; Serebrov. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-5. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Retrieved and installed material samples.

1990 January 26 - . 12:09 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-5-3 - . Crew: Viktorenko; Serebrov. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.13 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Viktorenko; Serebrov. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-5. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Tested spacesuit. Examined exterior of Kvant 2..

1990 February 1 - . 08:15 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-5-4 - . Crew: Viktorenko; Serebrov. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.21 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Viktorenko; Serebrov. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-5. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Serebrov tested SPK manoeuvring unit..

1990 February 5 - . 06:08 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-5-5 - . Crew: Viktorenko; Serebrov. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.16 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Viktorenko; Serebrov. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-5. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Viktorenko tested SPK manoeuvring unit..

1990 July 17 - . 13:06 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-6-1 - . Crew: Solovyov; Balandin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.30 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Solovyov; Balandin. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-6. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Repaired Soyuz TM-9 insulation rip..

1990 July 26 - . 11:15 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-6-2 - . Crew: Solovyov; Balandin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.15 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Solovyov; Balandin. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-6. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Dismantled equipment. Temporarily closed damaged hatch..

1990 October 30 - . 21:45 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-7-1 - . Crew: Manakov; Strekalov. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.11 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Manakov; Strekalov. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-7. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Attempt to repair Kvant 2 hatch..

1991 January 7 - . 17:03 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-8-1 - . Crew: Afanasyev; Manarov. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.22 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Afanasyev; Manarov. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-8. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Completed repair of Kvant 2 hatch..

1991 January 23 - . 10:59 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-8-2 - . Crew: Afanasyev; Manarov. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.23 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Afanasyev; Manarov. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-8. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Installed Strela boom on Mir..

1991 January 26 - . 09:00 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-8-3 - . Crew: Afanasyev; Manarov. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.26 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Afanasyev; Manarov. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-8. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Installed solar array supports..

1991 April 26 - . 20:29 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-8-4 - . Crew: Afanasyev; Manarov. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.15 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Afanasyev; Manarov. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-8. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Inspected Kurs docking system antenna..

1991 June 25 - . 21:11 GMT - .
1991 June 28 - . 19:02 GMT - .
1991 July 15 - . 11:45 GMT - .
1991 July 19 - . 11:10 GMT - .
1991 July 23 - . 09:15 GMT - .
1991 July 27 - . 08:44 GMT - .
1992 During the Year - .
  • Work on military Spektr version cancelled - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Spektr - Original; Spektr; Mir. The original Spektr design was to be armed with Oktava interceptor rockets and equipped with sensors to identify and track ballistic missile re-entry vehicles as well as discriminate decoys. In 1992, as directed by the Soviet Union's military and political leadership, all work on such projects was discontinued. The Spektr module was mothballed, then later converted into a civilian platform, partially funded by the United States.

1992 February 21 - . 20:09 GMT - .
1992 July 8 - . 12:38 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-11-1 - . Crew: Viktorenko; Kaleri. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0854 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Viktorenko; Kaleri. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-11. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Inspected gyrodyne orientation flywheels..

1992 September 3 - . 13:32 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-12-1 - . Crew: Solovyov; Avdeyev. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.16 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Solovyov; Avdeyev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Began installation of VDU thruster pod on Sofora tower..

1992 September 7 - . 11:47 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-12-2 - . Crew: Solovyov; Avdeyev. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.21 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Solovyov; Avdeyev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Continued installation of VDU thruster pod on Sofora tower..

1992 September 11 - . 10:06 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-12-3 - . Crew: Solovyov; Avdeyev. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.24 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Solovyov; Avdeyev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Completed installation of VDU thruster pod on Sofora tower..

1992 September 15 - . 07:49 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-12-4 - . Crew: Solovyov; Avdeyev. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.15 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Solovyov; Avdeyev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Installed Kurs docking system antenna on Kristall module..

1993 April 19 - . 17:15 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-13-1 - . Crew: Manakov; Polishchuk. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.23 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Manakov; Polishchuk. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-13. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Began installation of Kvant 1 solar array drive unit..

1993 May - .
  • Mir-Shuttle Docking Module proposed - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Mir-Shuttle Docking Module; Mir. In discussions regarding docking the US Shuttle with the Mir space station, NASA expressed concern about the clearances between the Shuttle and Mir's solar panels when using the docking port designed for Buran on the Kristall module. The Russians thought NASA overly cautious, but NPO Energia offered a solution - a modified version of the Buran SO, to be delivered by the Shuttle. The specialised SO docking module was originally designed for docking the Buran space shuttle with the Mir-2 space station. In the 1992 concept the module would be delivered by a Progress-M tug to Mir-2 and included a lateral EVA hatch.

1993 June 18 - . 17:25 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-13-2 - . Crew: Manakov; Polishchuk. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.19 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Manakov; Polishchuk. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-13. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Completed installation of Kvant 1 solar array drive unit..

1993 September 16 - . 05:57 GMT - .
1993 September 20 - . 03:51 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-14-2 - . Crew: Tsibliyev; Serebrov. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.13 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Tsibliyev; Serebrov. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-14. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Completed installation of Rapana truss..

1993 September 28 - . 00:57 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-14-3 - . Crew: Tsibliyev; Serebrov. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0778 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Tsibliyev; Serebrov. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-14. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Installed material samples and retrieved experiment packages. Documented external condition of Mir..

1993 October 22 - . 15:47 GMT - .
1993 October 29 - . 13:38 GMT - .
1994 During the Year - .
  • Mir-Shuttle Docking Module design approved. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Mir-Shuttle Docking Module; Mir. The simplified SO design deleted the lateral airlock. Qualification was relatively straightforward since the basic structure of the Soyuz BO orbital module was used, and the APDS androgynous docking port installation had already been proven on Soyuz-TM16. The draft project was completed in December 1993.

1994 April - .
1994 September 9 - . 07:00 GMT - .
1994 September 13 - . 06:30 GMT - .
1995 May 12 - . 04:20 GMT - .
1995 May 17 - . 02:38 GMT - .
1995 May 22 - . 00:10 GMT - .
1995 May 28 - . 22:22 GMT - .
1995 June 1 - . 22:05 GMT - .
1995 June 7 - .
  • Mir-Shuttle Docking Module delivered. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Mir-Shuttle Docking Module; Mir. Summary: Mir-Shuttle Docking Module flight article reached the Kennedy Space Center. It would be docked to the Mir station on November 14, 1995 at the Kristall module's axial docking port..

1995 July 14 - . 03:56 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-19-1 - . Crew: Solovyov; Budarin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.23 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Solovyov; Budarin. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-19. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Repaired solar array. Inspected exterior of station..

1995 July 19 - . 00:39 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-19-2 - . Crew: Solovyov; Budarin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.13 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Solovyov; Budarin. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-19. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Retrieved TREK detector..

1995 July 21 - . 00:28 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-19-3 - . Crew: Solovyov; Budarin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.23 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Solovyov; Budarin. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-19. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Installed Miras spectrometer..

1995 October 20 - . 11:50 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-20-1 - . Crew: Avdeyev; Reiter. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.22 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Avdeyev; Reiter. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-20. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Sample cassettes installed in ESEF (European Science Exposure Facility)..

1995 December 8 - . 19:23 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-20-2 - . Crew: Gidzenko; Avdeyev. EVA Type: Internal Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0201 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gidzenko; Avdeyev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-20. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Repositioned docking adapter..

1996 February 8 - . 14:03 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-20-3 - . Crew: Gidzenko; Reiter. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.13 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gidzenko; Reiter. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-20. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Retrieved and installed material samples.

1996 March 15 - . 01:04 GMT - .
1996 March 27 - . 06:34 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-76-1 - . Crew: Godwin; Clifford. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.25 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Godwin; Clifford. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: STS-76; Mir NASA-1; Mir EO-21. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Attached MEEP materials exposure experiment to outside of Mir (retrieved on STS-86)..

1996 May 21 - . 22:50 GMT - .
1996 May 25 - . 20:47 GMT - .
1996 May 30 - . 18:20 GMT - .
1996 June 6 - . 16:56 GMT - .
1996 June 13 - . 12:45 GMT - .
1996 December 2 - . 15:54 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-22-1 - . Crew: Korzun; Kaleri. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.25 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korzun; Kaleri. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir NASA-2; Mir EO-22. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Began installation of MCSA solar array cables..

1996 December 9 - . 13:50 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-22-2 - . Crew: Korzun; Kaleri. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korzun; Kaleri. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir NASA-2; Mir EO-22. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Completed external cable installation for MCSA solar array. Installed antenna..

1997 April 29 - . 05:10 GMT - .
1997 August 22 - . 11:14 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-24-1 - . Crew: Solovyov; Vinogradov. EVA Type: Internal Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.14 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Solovyov; Vinogradov. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir NASA-4; Mir EO-24. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Connected Spektr power cables. Surveyed interior of depressurised Spektr module. Retrieved equipment and belongings from module..

1997 September 6 - . 01:07 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-24-2 - . Crew: Solovyov; Foale. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.25 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Solovyov; Foale. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-24; Mir NASA-4. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Inspected exterior of Spektr. Moved solar arrays..

1997 October 1 - .
1997 October 20 - . 09:40 GMT - .
1997 November 3 - . 03:32 GMT - .
1997 November 6 - . 00:12 GMT - .
1998 January 9 - . 23:08 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-24-6 - . Crew: Solovyov; Vinogradov. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.13 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Solovyov; Vinogradov. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir NASA-5; Mir EO-24. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Recovered equipment; began repairs on leaky Kvant-2 airlock. Examination of airlock indicated cause was loose belt, resulting in 10 mm gap..

1998 January 14 - . 21:12 GMT - .
1998 March 3 - .
  • EVA Mir EO-25-1 - . Crew: Musabayev; Budarin. EVA Type: Internal Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0658 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Musabayev; Budarin. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir NASA-6; Mir EO-25. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Inner and outer airlocks of Kvant-2 module were depressurised for EVA. However the crew could not open the outer hatch, repaired on 2 January 1998 by Solovyov and Vinogradov. The planned EVA was cancelled..

1998 April 1 - . 13:35 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-25-2 - . Crew: Musabayev; Budarin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Musabayev; Budarin. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir NASA-6; Mir EO-25. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: The Kvant-2 hatch had been fixed from within and was used for the EVA. Objective was to repair the damaged Spektr solar panel. Handrails were installed near the panel but the crew could not complete the work before the scheduled time ran out..

1998 April 6 - . 13:35 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-25-3 - . Crew: Musabayev; Budarin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.18 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Musabayev; Budarin. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir NASA-6; Mir EO-25. Spacecraft: Mir. The crew succeeded in completing repair of the damaged Spektr solar panel. However the EVA was cut short when Mission Control in error commanded the Mir to drift. This was then misdiagnosed as a depletion of fuel of the VDU orientation engine, and the crew was ordered back into the station.

1998 April 11 - . 09:55 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-25-4 - . Crew: Musabayev; Budarin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Musabayev; Budarin. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir NASA-6; Mir EO-25. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: The cosmonauts began a series of three EVA's to install the new VDU station orientation engine (delivered by Progress M-38) into the Sofora boom. On this first spacewalk they disconnected the old engine (in use for six years) and pushed it into space..

1998 April 17 - . 07:40 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-25-5 - . Crew: Musabayev; Budarin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Musabayev; Budarin. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir NASA-6; Mir EO-25. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Installation of the new VDU station orientation engine assembly was completed at the end of the Sofora boom..

1998 April 22 - . 05:34 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-25-6 - . Crew: Musabayev; Budarin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Musabayev; Budarin. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir NASA-6; Mir EO-25. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Two truss structures on the Kvant module and the new Sofora VDU station orientation engine assembly was unlatched from Progress M-38..

1998 September 15 - . 20:00 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-26-1 - . Crew: Padalka; Avdeyev. EVA Type: Internal Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0208 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Padalka; Avdeyev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-26; Mir EO-26/-27. Spacecraft: Mir. After donning spacesuits, the PKhO compartment of the Mir core module was depressurized and the crew entered the dead Spektr module at 20:00 GMT. They reconnected some cables for the solar panel steering mechanism and closed the hatch a half hour later. The PKhO was then repressurized.

1998 November 11 - . 19:23 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-26-2 - . Crew: Padalka; Avdeyev. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.25 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Padalka; Avdeyev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-26; Mir EO-26/-27. Spacecraft: Mir. Padalka and Avdeyev made the EVA from the Kvant-2 airlock on the Mir. The walk began at 19:24 GMT. The cosmonauts installed a meteoroid detector in for the upcoming Leonid shower, and hand-launched the Spoutnik-41 amateur-radio mini-satellite. The space walk concluded at 01:18 GMT on November 11.

1999 April 16 - . 04:37 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-27-1 - . Crew: Afanasyev; Haignere. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.26 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev; Haignere. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-27; Mir EO-26/-27. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Haignere launched by hand the Sputnik-99 amateur radio satellite, delivered to Mir by Progress M-41..

1999 July 23 - . 11:06 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-27-2 - . Crew: Afanasyev; Avdeyev. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.25 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev; Avdeyev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-27; Mir EO-26/-27. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Mir spacewalk started at 11:06 GMT. Afanasyev and Avdeyev installed a new experimental 6-meter antenna but failed to deploy it..

1999 July 28 - . 09:37 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-27-3 - . Crew: Afanasyev; Avdeyev. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.22 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev; Avdeyev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-27; Mir EO-26/-27. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: The spacewalk started at 09:37 GMT. Afanasyev and Avdeyev erected an experimental 6-meter antenna. At the end of the experiment the antenna was jettisoned..

2000 May 12 - . 10:44 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-28-1 - . Crew: Kaleri; Zalyotin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.20 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kaleri; Zalyotin. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-28. Spacecraft: Mir. The cosmonauts entered open space via the air-lock of Kvant-2 at 10:44 GMT. The Germatizator experiment, the use of a special glue to seal off cracks on the outside surface of the complex, was executed according to plan. An inspection of a malfunctioning solar panel on Kvant-1showed that the steering cable to the rotor was burnt through due to a short-circuit and was beyond repair. The cosmonauts dismantled an experimental lightweight solar battery from the outer surface of the SO docking compartment. The last activity was the panorama-inspection, making images of the outside of the complex to enable specialist to analyse the effects of ageing of the material. The hatch was closed on what might have been the last spacewalk on Mir at 15:36 GMT.

2001 March 23 - .
  • Mir deorbited - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Spacecraft: Mir. On March 19, 2001 Mir was in a 224 x 230 km x 51.6 deg orbit. On March 23 at 0033 GMT Progress M1-5 carried out the first small DPO burn to lower Mir's orbit from 212 x 218 km to 190 x 219 km. A second small burn began at 0201 GMT and put Mir in a 150 x 215 km orbit. The main deorbit burn began at 0507 GMT, lowering perigee to less than 80 km. At 0550 GMT observers in Fiji reported seeing multiple bright reentry bodies passing overhead, confirming that the station had broken up by that time. The impact zone was around 160 W 40 S.

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