Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. The OK-M2 was a manned spaceplane, a straight delta wing joined to a broad fuselage with an upturned nose.
The OK-M2 was designed by NPO Molniya as a follow-on to the OK-M of NPO Energia with less development cost and risk than Energia's proposed OK-M1 / MMKS shuttle system.
Crew Size: 8.
Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb).
More... - Chronology...
Unfuelled mass: 27,300 kg (60,100 lb).
Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
Height: 15.00 m (49.00 ft).
Span: 10.00 m (32.00 ft).
Thrust: 79.40 kN (17,850 lbf).
Russian Rocketplanes The story of rocketplanes and spaceplanes in the Soviet Union was one of constant setbacks due to internal politics, constant struggle with little result. More...
Associated Launch Vehicles
Energia The Energia-Buran Reusable Space System (MKS) began development in 1976 as a Soviet booster that would exceed the capabilities of the US shuttle system. Following extended development, Energia made two successful flights in 1987-1988. But the Soviet Union was crumbling, and the ambitious plans to build an orbiting defense shield, to renew the ozone layer, dispose of nuclear waste, illuminate polar cities, colonize the moon and Mars, were not to be. Funding dried up and the Energia-Buran program completely disappeared from the government's budget after 1993. More...
Energia M Launch vehicle originally designed in the 1980's to fullfill the third generation 20-30 tonnes to orbit launcher requirement. It was an adaptation of the Energia launch vehicle, using two strap-on booster units instead of four, and a reduced-diameter core using a single RD-0120 engine instead of four. In the 1990's a structural test article was built and it was proposed that several Energia-M's be launched for commercial customers using surplus Energia components. No buyers came forward for the untested design. More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Molniya Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Molniya Design Bureau, Russia. More...
N2O4/UDMH Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...
Semenov, Yu. P., S P Korolev Space Corporation Energia, RKK Energia, 1994.
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