Encyclopedia Astronautica

Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1995.08.02 (Interbol 1) to 1996.08.29 (Interbol 2). Interbol was originally an Intercosmos project with a launch planned for the late 1980's.

It consisted of four spacecraft taking precise measurements of different portions of the Earth's magnetic fields. Interbol consisted of two pairs of spacecraft: one pair with orbits of 500 km by 200,000 km (tail probes) and one pair with orbits of 500 km by 20,000 km (auroral probes). Financial and other problems following the break-up of the Soviet Union and the Intercosmos organization delayed the launches until 1995-1996.

Each pair of spacecraft consisted of a Russian Prognoz-M (1,250 kg tail probes / 1,400 kg auroral probe) and a Czech Magion (50 kg ) satellite. The Prognoz-M spacecraft had a payload capacity of 250-350 kg, and was spin-stabilized with a diameter of 2.3 m, height of 5.0 m, and span with deployed antennas of 12.5 m x 22 m x 22 m. Four solar panels produced up to 250 W for the scientific payload from a total output of 900 W. Both probes carried a variety of plasma and charged particle detectors. Swedish, French, and Canadian instruments were also be on board. The Magion sub-satellites flew in close proximity to the Prognoz but could maneuver to as much as 10,000 km from the mother craft.

AKA: Interbol; SO-M2.
Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
First Launch: 1995.08.02.
Last Launch: 1996.08.29.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya, in variants with Blocks ML, 2BL, or SO-L third stages according to payload. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...
  • Lavochkin Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Lavochkin Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia. More...

  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Voevodin, Sergey A, "Sergey A. Voevodin's Reports", VSA072 - Space Apparatus, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Federation of American Scientists Web Site, Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...

Prognoz-M Chronology

1995 August 2 - . 23:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL N15000-294 10M127S.
  • Interbol 1 - . Payload: SO-M2 s/n 511. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz-M. Decay Date: 2000-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 23632 . COSPAR: 1995-039A. Apogee: 188,331 km (117,023 mi). Perigee: 4,426 km (2,750 mi). Inclination: 68.2000 deg. Period: 5,461.60 min. Summary: Particles and fields research. Paired with Magion 4 subsatellite..

1996 August 29 - . 05:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M 2BL.
  • Interbol 2 - . Payload: SO-M2 s/n 512. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz-M. USAF Sat Cat: 24293 . COSPAR: 1996-050C. Apogee: 18,604 km (11,559 mi). Perigee: 1,369 km (850 mi). Inclination: 63.6000 deg. Period: 347.20 min. Summary: Auroral research. Paired with Magion 5 subsatellite..

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