Encyclopedia Astronautica
PS Model


Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 2 launches, 1997.10.05 (Sputnik-40) to 1998.10.25 (Spoutnik-41). Two subscale models of Sputnik 1, were built by students for hand-launch from Mir on fortieth anniversary of Sputnik 1.

Sputnik-40 was launched by the Mir crew on a spacewalk in 1997. Progress M-40 delivered a more advanced version, Sputnik 41. On a spacewalk from Mir on November 10, Padalka and Avdeyev hand-launched the amateur-radio minisatellite. The PS models carried a small transmitter and were sponsored by Aero Club de France, AMSAT-France, and the Astronautical Federation of Russia. The second Sputnik-40 flight model was still aboard Mir as of 1998. The second Spoutnik-40 would perhaps be deployed prior to the abandonment of Mir in 1999.

First Launch: 1997.10.05.
Last Launch: 1998.10.25.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U Russian standardised man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • ACF French agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Aero Club de France, Paris, France. More...

Associated Programs
  • Oscar Amateur radio satellite network. For over a third of a century a series of OSCAR satellites have been launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA GSFC Orbital Parameters,

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

PS Model Chronology


1997 October 5 - . 15:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Sputnik-40 - . Payload: Spoutnik 40 Ans / RS-17. Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: AFR. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: PS Model. Decay Date: 1998-05-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 24958 . COSPAR: 1997-058C. Apogee: 378 km (234 mi). Perigee: 369 km (229 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 87.10 min. Summary: Subscale model of the first Spuntik, hand-launched by Mir crew during an EVA. Transmitted radio signals..

1997 November 10 - .
  • Sputnik-40 - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: PS Model. Two subscale models of Sputnik 1, were built by students for hand-launch from Mir on fortieth anniversary of Sputnik 1. Progress M-40 delivered a more advanced version, Sputnik 41. On a spacewalk from Mir on November 10, Padalka and Avdeyev hand-launched the amateur-radio minisatellite. The PS models carried a small transmitter and were sponsored by Aero Club de France, AMSAT-France, and the Astronautical Federation of Russia.

1998 October 25 - . 04:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U 660.
  • Spoutnik-41 - . Nation: France. Agency: ACF; VVS. Manufacturer: AFR. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: PS Model. Decay Date: 1999-01-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 25533 . COSPAR: 1998-062C. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi). Perigee: 313 km (194 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. On a space walk from Mir on November 10, Padalka and Avdeyev hand-launched the Spoutnik-41 amateur-radio mini-satellite at around 19:30 GMT. Spoutnik-41, also designated RS-18, was another scale model of the first satellite, Sputnik 1, launched 41 years ago. It carried a small transmitter and was sponsored by Aero Club de France, AMSAT-France, and the Astronautical Federation of Russia. A similar model was launched in 1997 for the fortieth anniversary of Sputnik. On that occasion, two flight models were carried to Mir but only one was launched. The second Spoutnik-40 flight model was still aboard Mir as of 1998. The second Spoutnik-40 would perhaps be deployed prior to the abandonment of Mir in 1999.

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