Encyclopedia Astronautica
Radio


Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 9 launches, 1978.10.26 (Radio Sputnik 1) to 1994.12.26 (Radio-ROSTO RS-15).

Radio-ROSTO (Russian Defense, Sport, and Technical Organization) was a small amateur radio satellite launched on the maiden orbital mission of the Rokot booster on 26 December 1994. The 72-kg spacecraft used the obsolete Strela-1M communications satellite bus. The payload was the BRTK-11 electronic billboard (aka RS15) for use by amateur radio operators. The transponders worked at an uplink frequency band of 145.857-145.897 MHz and a downlink frequency band of 29.357-29.397 MHz with an output power of 5 W. Radio-ROSTO was inserted into an orbit of 1,884 km by 2,161 km at an inclination of 64.8 degrees. Plans for a commercial constellation of these satellites did not come to pass.

Radio-ROSTO was seen as the precursor to a proposed constellation of Radio-M spacecraft. Also launched by Rokot but into orbits of 950 to 1,000 km at 65 degrees, the network would consist of up to six spacecraft working with uplink and downlink frequencies of 435 MHz and 146 MHz and an output transmitter power of 20 W. Radio-M spacecraft would have been nearly twice as heavy, with a total mass of 120 kg. An alternative system would consist of six Radio-ROSTO class spacecraft in circular orbits near 1,950 km at inclinations of 65 degrees. The Radio program dated back to the piggyback launch of Radio-1 and Radio-2 in 1978, followed by Radio-3 through Radio-8 in 1981. Subsequent Radio transponders were carried by other host spacecraft.

Gross mass: 72 kg (158 lb).
First Launch: 1978.10.26.
Last Launch: 1994.12.26.
Number: 9 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Kosmos 3 In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • Tsiklon The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...
  • UR-100N The UR-100N was designed as a replacement for the UR-100 at the end of its ten year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Yangel, the MR-UR-100, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Kosmos 3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • Tsiklon Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...
  • Kosmos 11K65M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Definitive and prolific production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-14 IRBM. After further development at NPO Polyot (Omsk, Chief Designer A S Klinishkov), the modified Kosmos-3M added a restartable second stage with an orientation system. This booster was launched form two 'Cusovaya' launch complexes from 1967. The second stage used low thrust rockets using gas generator output to adjust the final velocity of the stage More...
  • UR-100N Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100N was designed as a replacement for the UR-100 at the end of its ten year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Yangel, the MR-UR-100, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other. More...
  • Tsiklon-3 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The Tsyklon 3 was developed in 1970-1977 as a part of a program to reduce the number of Soviet booster types. The first two stages were derived from the 8K68 version of the R-36 ICBM, while the restartable third stage was derived from that of the R-36-O. Compared to the Tsyklon 2, the launch vehicle increased payload to 4 metric tons, provided for completely automated launch operations, and had increased orbital injection accuracy. More...
  • Rokot Russian all-solid orbital launch vehicle, consisting of decommissioned UR-100N ICBMs with a Briz-KM upper stage. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Reshetnev Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Reshetnev Design Bureau, Krasnoyarsk-26/Zhelenogorsk, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Golotyuk, S, "Sputnikostroiteli s beregov Yeniseya", Novosti kosmonavtiki, No. 10, 1999, p. 64.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...
  • Plesetsk LC32/2 Tsiklon launch complex. Construction of this highly-automated launch complex for the Tsiklon-3 launch vehicle started in 1970. The complex was designed by the Transmash Design bureau led by Chief Designer V N Solovyev. The complex consisted of two pads. The vehicle was assembled and integrated with its payload in the assembly building. It was then delivered to the launch pad by railway in a horizontal position. A launch pad erector placed the rocket into vertical position. No service tower was needed for the storable-propellant booster. More...

Radio Chronology


1978 October 26 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Radio Sputnik 1 - . Payload: RS-1. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 11085 . COSPAR: 1978-100B. Apogee: 1,707 km (1,060 mi). Perigee: 1,686 km (1,047 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 120.40 min. Summary: Launched with Cosmos-1045. Amateur radiocommunication and scientific and technical experiments and study projects by students at higher educational establishments..
  • Radio-2; Radio Sputnik 2 - . Payload: RS-2. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 11086 . COSPAR: 1978-100C. Apogee: 1,705 km (1,059 mi). Perigee: 1,686 km (1,047 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 120.30 min. Summary: Launched with Cosmos-1045. Amateur radiocommunication and scientific and technical experiments and study projects by students at higher educational establishments..

1981 December 17 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53775-120.
  • Radio-3; Radio Sputnik 3 - . Payload: RS-3. Nation: USSR. Agency: Iskra. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 12997 . COSPAR: 1981-120A. Apogee: 1,657 km (1,029 mi). Perigee: 1,565 km (972 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 118.50 min. Summary: Amateur radiocommunication. Radio-3 to Radio-8 launched by a single carrier rocket. .
  • Radio-4; Radio Sputnik 4 - . Payload: RS-6. Nation: USSR. Agency: Iskra. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 13000 . COSPAR: 1981-120D. Apogee: 1,666 km (1,035 mi). Perigee: 1,635 km (1,015 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 119.30 min. Summary: Amateur radiocommunication. Radio-3 to Radio-8 launched by a single carrier rocket. .
  • Radio-7; Radio Sputnik 7 - . Payload: RS-7. Nation: USSR. Agency: Iskra. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 13001 . COSPAR: 1981-120E. Apogee: 1,661 km (1,032 mi). Perigee: 1,622 km (1,007 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 119.10 min. Summary: Amateur radiocommunication. Radio-3 to Radio-8 launched by a single carrier rocket. .
  • Radio-8; Radio Sputnik 8 - . Payload: RS-4. Nation: USSR. Agency: Iskra. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 12998 . COSPAR: 1981-120B. Apogee: 1,682 km (1,045 mi). Perigee: 1,652 km (1,026 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 119.70 min. Summary: Amateur radiocommunication. Radio-3 to Radio-8 launched by a single carrier rocket. .
  • Radio-5; Radio Sputnik 5 - . Payload: RS-5. Nation: USSR. Agency: Iskra. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 12999 . COSPAR: 1981-120C. Apogee: 1,668 km (1,036 mi). Perigee: 1,647 km (1,023 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 119.50 min. Summary: Amateur radiocommunication. Radio-3 to Radio-8 launched by a single carrier rocket. .
  • Radio-6; Radio Sputnik 6 - . Payload: RS-8. Nation: USSR. Agency: Iskra. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 13002 . COSPAR: 1981-120F. Apogee: 1,660 km (1,030 mi). Perigee: 1,580 km (980 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 118.60 min. Summary: Amateur radiocommunication. Radio-3 to Radio-8 launched by a single carrier rocket. .

1994 December 26 - . 03:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC175/59. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: Rokot. LV Configuration: Rokot-K No. 4L.
  • Radio-ROSTO RS-15 - . Payload: RS-15. Mass: 70 kg (154 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Radio. USAF Sat Cat: 23439 . COSPAR: 1994-085A. Apogee: 2,151 km (1,336 mi). Perigee: 1,894 km (1,176 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 127.70 min.

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