Encyclopedia Astronautica
Raduga-1


Russian communications satellite. 8 launches, 1989.06.21 (Raduga 1-1) to 2007.12.09 (Raduga-1). The Raduga-1 geosynchronous communications satellite was to have been the basis for the YeSSS-2 second generation Unified Satellite Communication System.

Phase 1 of the system was to have consisted of three Raduga-1 spacecraft. The Raduga-1 was capable of communication not just with fixed earth stations, but mobile platforms as well. It was equipped with the Tor C-band transponder, working at 20, 42, and 44 GHz. Although a later generation system, Raduga-1 still used the KAUR-3 spacecraft bus. This was 3-axis stabilized using liquid propellant micro-engines to within 0.25 degrees of the earth's centre. The single-unit body was equipped with solar panels, and active liquid-gas phase-change thermoregulation system, and a corrective engine unit for making orbital adjustments. 25 square meters of solar panels provided 1280 W of power.

AKA: 17F15; Globus.
Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
First Launch: 1989.06.21.
Last Launch: 2007.12.09.
Number: 8 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This improved four stage version uses the Block DM-2 / 11S861 fourth stage, which has its own guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Replaced the original Block DM / 11S86 version from 1982 to 1995. Used for launch of Glonass navigation satellites into medium earth orbit; and launch of Luch, Ekran-M, Potok, Raduga, Gorizont, Raduga-1, Elektro, and Gals communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit. Commercial version with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for Western payloads was dubbed 'Block DM1'. More...
  • Proton/Briz M Improved Proton orbital launch vehicle. Improvements in lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilize propellants (reducing release of toxic chemicals in stage impact areas). Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaces Block D cyrogenic stage. More...
  • Proton/Briz M Improved Proton orbital launch vehicle. Improvements in lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilize propellants (reducing release of toxic chemicals in stage impact areas). Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaces Block D cyrogenic stage. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...
  • Reshetnev Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Reshetnev Design Bureau, Krasnoyarsk-26/Zhelenogorsk, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Kaesmann, Ferdinand, et. al., "Proton - Development of A Russian Launch Vehicle", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 1998, Volume 51, page 3.
  • Voevodin, Sergey A, "Sergey A. Voevodin's Reports", VSA072 - Space Apparatus, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Vladimirov, A, "Tablitsa zapuskov RN 'Proton' i 'Proton K'", Novosti kosmonavtiki, 1998, Issue 10, page 25.
  • National Space Science Center Planetary Page, As of 19 February 1999.. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Golotyuk, S, "Sputnikostroiteli s beregov Yeniseya", Novosti kosmonavtiki, No. 10, 1999, p. 64.
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Raduga-1 Chronology


1989 June 21 - . 23:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 355-02.
  • Raduga 1-1 - . Payload: Raduga-1 s/n 11. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. Completed Operations Date: 1996-12-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 20083 . COSPAR: 1989-048A. Apogee: 36,313 km (22,563 mi). Perigee: 36,147 km (22,460 mi). Inclination: 8.1000 deg. Period: 1,458.80 min. Stationed at 49 deg E; first launch of alternate Raduga design. Maintenance of telephone and telegraph radio communications. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 49 deg E in 1989-1992; 70 deg E in 1992-1996 As of 2 September 2001 located at 18.58 deg E drifting at 5.633 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 167.42W drifting at 5.632W degrees per day.

1990 December 27 - . 11:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 342-01.
  • Raduga 1-2 - . Payload: Raduga-1 s/n 12. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. Completed Operations Date: 1996-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21038 . COSPAR: 1990-116A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 1.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Stationed at 49 deg E; second launch of alternate Raduga design. Further expansion of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system in the territory of the USSR. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 49 deg E in 1991-1996 As of 27 August 2001 located at 93.45 deg E drifting at 0.139 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 51.16E drifting at 0.090W degrees per day.

1994 February 5 - . 08:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 375-02.
  • Raduga 1-3 - . Payload: Raduga-1. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 22981 . COSPAR: 1994-008A. Apogee: 36,513 km (22,688 mi). Perigee: 36,513 km (22,688 mi). Inclination: 1.4000 deg. Period: 1,473.00 min. Joined Raduga 1-2 at 48 deg E; third launch of alternate Raduga design. Extension of the telephone and telegraph radio communications system on the territory of the Russian Federation. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 49 deg E in 1994-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 49.75 deg E drifting at 0.057 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 100.54E drifting at 0.021W degrees per day.

1999 February 28 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 387-01.
  • Raduga-1 - . Payload: Raduga-1 s/n 14. Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 25642 . COSPAR: 1999-010A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 10.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min. Geosynchronous communications satellite, stationed at 35 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 34.80 deg E drifting at 0.013 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 107.14E drifting at 0.165W degrees per day.

2000 August 28 - . 20:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 401-02.
  • Raduga-1 - . Mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 26477 . COSPAR: 2000-049A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min. Raduga-1 military communications satellite initially named Cosmos 2372 by the RVSN press service. Stationed at 50 deg E. As of 5 September 2001 located at 49.25 deg E drifting at 0.048 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 45.70E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.

2001 October 6 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 405-01?.
  • Raduga-1 - . Payload: Globus 2 / Raduga 1-6. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 26936 . COSPAR: 2001-045A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. The Blok-DM2 upper stage put the Russian geosynchronous military communications satellite into a geosynchronous transfer orbit at 1755 GMT. A second burn at 2318 GMT to circularized the orbit at geostationary altitude. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 106.48E drifting at 9.104W degrees per day.

2004 March 27 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 410-05.
  • Raduga-1 - . Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 28194 . COSPAR: 2004-010A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 1.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Military communications satellite. Parked in geostationary orbit at 85.0 deg E, after being placed in unusual subsynchronous drift orbit. Original name Cosmos 2406. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 85.19E drifting at 0.029W degrees per day..

2007 December 9 - . 00:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M. LV Configuration: Proton/Briz M s/n D330.
  • Cosmos 2434 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 32373 . COSPAR: 2007-058A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Raduga-1 / Globus communications satellite..

2009 February 28 - . 04:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 s/n P343.
  • Raduga 1-8 - . Mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 34264 . COSPAR: 2009-010A. Apogee: 35,943 km (22,333 mi). Perigee: 35,635 km (22,142 mi). Inclination: 1.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

2010 January 28 - . 00:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M. LV Configuration: Proton/Briz M s/n P352.
  • Raduga-1M - . Mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 36538 . COSPAR: 2010-002A. Apogee: 35,591 km (22,115 mi). Perigee: 35,567 km (22,100 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,425.50 min. Summary: Second new-generation Globus-M military communications satellite..

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