Encyclopedia Astronautica

Russian space tug. Study 1975. Upper stage / space tug using high energy propellants. To have been launched by Proton; ground tested but never flown.

Developed by Glushko beginning in 1965. Planned for use in Proton K-4H high energy upper stage. Motor tested but never flown.

Unit Cost $: 20.000 million.

Gross mass: 21,700 kg (47,800 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Height: 6.00 m (19.60 ft).
Diameter: 4.00 m (13.10 ft).
Span: 4.00 m (13.10 ft).
Thrust: 98.00 kN (22,031 lbf).
Specific impulse: 401 s.

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Associated Propellants
  • LF2/Ammonia Liquid Fluorine is the highest performance oxidiser and in the early 1960's it seemed in both American and Russia that a new generation of higher performance engines would emerge. However although test engines were built, fluorine was found to be just too toxic and reactive to be safely used as a propellant. Ammonia (NH3) is a colourless gas and liquid with a strong irritating characteristic odour. More...

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