Encyclopedia Astronautica
Resurs-O1


Russian earth land resources satellite. 4 launches, 1985.10.03 (Cosmos 1689) to 1998.07.10 (Resurs-O1 No. 4). A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites.

The Ministry of Defense was tasked with developing these systems, even though they did not contribute directly to any military mission. One of these was Resurs-O, which became Meteor-Priroda 3, based on the VNIIEM second generation Meteor bus. The satellite included the Fragment multispectral scanner by IKI NA and a charged-coupled detector by NPO Radiopribor. Meteor-Priroda 3-1 featured a data transmittal rate of 8 mbit/sec. The system was installed experimentally on several Meteor (Resurs-OE) spacecraft for both military and civilian use. The Aist automatic control system was built by 53-NIIP MO.

The Resurs-O program, which was analogous to the US Landsat program, became operational in 1985. Designed and manufactured by the All-Union Research Institute for Electromechanics, the Resurs-O1 spacecraft closely resembled the Meteor series of satellites from which they were derived. In fact, the Resurs-O development program utilized two Meteor satellites (Meteor 1-18 and Meteor 1-25) and five Meteor-Priroda vehicles (1977-1983) to perfect the instruments and techniques finally adapted for Resurs-O1. The Meteor-Priroda satellites also marked the first use of sun-synchronous orbits by the USSR.

Program management for the Resurs-O effort was originally the responsibility of the State Committee on Hydrometeorology. In 1989 the Planeta NPO was formed under this organization to consolidate the meteorological and remote sensing satellite systems of the USSR. Subsequently, the Planeta NPO, the All-Union Research Institute of Electromechanics, and the Space Instrument Building NPO, which was responsible for many of the payload instruments, formed the Soviet Association for Earth Remote Sensing (SOVZOND) to promote Resurs-O products on a commercial basis. Resurs-O spacecraft were placed into nominal orbits of 630 km and an inclination of 98 degrees. Each mission was conducted to ensure that the spacecraft's descending node would occur between 10:00 and 10:30 am local sun time, thereby providing excellent lighting conditions for the complex sensor suite. The objectives of the Resurs-O program were as follows:

  • to obtain in both real-time and store-and- forward modes multispectral sensor information with medium and high resolution in visible and IR bands to provide data for land and ocean states in any region of the globe;
  • to obtain in the same modes the all-weather relay images of the land ocean with medium resolution;
  • to process the obtained data and images, and to perform their radiometric, geometric and geographical correction;
  • to represent and distribute the obtained data in the form of single-spectral and synthesized multispectral images on the photos, negatives, and digital recordings on the various media (tapes, diskettes);
  • to obtain and disseminate thematic maps and charts concerning various aspects of Earth natural resources exploration, environmental control and ecological monitoring.

The Resurs-O1 spacecraft bus was almost identical to that of the Meteor 3 vehicle with a total mass of 1,840-1,910 kg, including a payload of up to 600 kg. The spacecraft diameter was 1.4 m with an overall height of 6.4 m and a solar array span of 11.6 m. The payload support structure at the base of the spacecraft was tailored for each mission to accommodate the specific instruments to be carried. For example, of the three primary instruments available, the first Resurs-O1 (Cosmos 1689) was out-fitted with two MSU-E, one MSU-SK, and one MSU-S devices, while the second Resurs-O1 (Cosmos 1939) omitted the MSU-S and carried two MSU-E and two MSU-SK.

The 30-kg MSU-E employed an electro-optical CCD scanner for high resolution and could be used in pairs to provide a continuous 80-km wide swath. Each unit covered 3 spectral bands between 0.5 to 0.9 micrometers, with a ground swath of 45 km (up to 350 km off-nadir), and a ground resolution of 45 m.

The MSU-S covered 2 spectral bands between 0.58 to 1.0 micrometers, with a ground swath of 1380 km and a ground resolution of 240 m.

The mechanical MSU-SK scanner weighed 60 kg and combined a lower resolution capability with a much wider swath. It covered 5 spectral bands between 0.5 and 12.6 micrometers, with a ground swath of 600 km. A ground resolution of 170 m was obtained in the four lower bands and 600 m in the 10.4-12.6 micrometer band.

The primary data collection and processing stations for Resurs-O were at Moscow, Novosibirsk, and Khabarovsk. The principal data transmission link was at 466.5 Mhz. A standardized small receiving station, utilizing a 2.5 m diameter antenna and the Spektr-DK01 system, was designed for use with both the Okean and Resurs-O spacecraft when the data links were upgraded to the new 8.2 GHz system.

AKA: 11F697; Meteor-Priroda.
Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb).
First Launch: 1985.10.03.
Last Launch: 1998.07.10.
Number: 4 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Meteor Family of Polish sounding rockets developed by the Polish Aviation Institute for the Polish Hydro-Meteorological institute beginning in 1962. More...
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...
  • Zenit Zenit was to be a modular new generation medium Soviet launch vehicle, replacing the various ICBM-derived launch vehicles in use since the 1960's (Tsiklon and Soyuz). A version of the first stage was used as strap-ons for the cancelled Energia heavy booster. But it was built by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine; when the Soviet Union broke up planned large-scale production for the Soviet military was abandoned (Angara development was begun as an indigenous alternative). Launch pads were completed only at Baikonur; those at Plesetsk were never finished and are planned to be completed as Angara pads. However the vehicle found new life as a commercial launch vehicle, launched from a sea platform by an American/Ukrainian consortium. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Vostok 8A92M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Second generation space systems required injection of lighter but higher-altitude Meteor and other satellite payloads into sun-synchronous orbits. The 8A92M version was developed for this purpose. First use was the Meteor launch on 29 June 1977. More...
  • Zenit Zenit was to be a modular new generation medium Soviet launch vehicle, replacing the various ICBM-derived launch vehicles in use since the 1960's (Tsiklon and Soyuz). A version of the first stage was used as strap-ons for the cancelled Energia heavy booster. But it was built by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine; when the Soviet Union broke up planned large-scale production for the Soviet military was abandoned (Angara development was begun as an indigenous alternative). Launch pads were completed only at Baikonur; those at Plesetsk were never finished and are planned to be completed as Angara pads. However the vehicle found new life as a commercial launch vehicle, launched from a sea platform by an American/Ukrainian consortium. More...
  • Zenit-2 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage version that continued to be used for launch of Russian military satellites tailored to it after the fall of the Soviet Union. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...
  • VNIIEM Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. VNII Elektromekhaniki (Russian abbreviation for All-Union Scientific-Research Institute for Electro-Mechanics), Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • Resurs Zenit-derived satellites used for earth resources studies as part of the 'Resurs' and 'Gektor-Priroda' project. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Voevodin, Sergey A, "Sergey A. Voevodin's Reports", VSA072 - Space Apparatus, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • "Proizveden zapusk KA 'Resurs O1' No 3", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1994, Issue 22, page 46.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Resurs-O1 Chronology


1985 October 3 - . 05:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1689 - . Payload: Resurs-O1 no. 1. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs-O1. Decay Date: 2001-01-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 16110 . COSPAR: 1985-090A. Apogee: 545 km (338 mi). Perigee: 496 km (308 mi). Inclination: 97.6000 deg. Period: 95.10 min. First flight of Resurs-O1. Acquisition of operational information on the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR; continued trials of new types of informational and measurement apparatus and methods of remote sensing of the earth's surface and atmosphere. Operated for one year, two months. Re-entered January 14, 2001.

1988 April 20 - . 05:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1939 - . Payload: Resurs-O1 no. 2. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs-O1. USAF Sat Cat: 19045 . COSPAR: 1988-032A. Apogee: 602 km (374 mi). Perigee: 570 km (350 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 96.40 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. Stayed in operation for six years, six months, far beyond its rated life of 3 to 5 years..

1994 November 4 - . 05:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Resurs-O1 No. 3 - . Payload: Resurs-O1 No. 3. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs-O1. USAF Sat Cat: 23342 . COSPAR: 1994-074A. Apogee: 663 km (411 mi). Perigee: 660 km (410 mi). Inclination: 98.0300 deg. Period: 97.98 min. Studied natural resources. It carried the German Safir-R1 communications experiment as a secondary attached payload. Expected life 3 to 5 years. The spacecraft mass of 1,907 kg was slightly higher than earlier models. The principal Earth observation sensors were MSU-SK and MSU-E instruments along with an experimental PVM-E local vertical sensor .

1998 July 10 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Resurs-O1 No. 4 - . Payload: Resurs-O1 No. 4. Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: VNIIEM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs-O1. USAF Sat Cat: 25394 . COSPAR: 1998-043A. Apogee: 818 km (508 mi). Perigee: 815 km (506 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. In addition to its remote sensing equipment, the satellite carried the Belgian LLMS (Little LEO Messaging System) communications payload for the IRIS system. The launch was critical in restoring confidence in the Zenit vehicle prior to planned commercial launches of Globalstar satellites from Baikonur and the first Sea Launch flights using a three-stage Zenit from a California-based floating launch platform. Expected life 3 to 5 years.

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