Taiwanese earth sea satellite. 3 launches, 1999.01.27 (ROCSAT-1) to 2008.10.01 (ROCSAT 2). Taiwan's ROCSAT (Republic of China Satellites) were built for Taiwan's National Space Program Office.
The test satellite series progressed from all-American to all-indigenous satellite components.
Taiwan's first satellite, ROCSAT (Republic of China Satellite) was built by TRW for Taiwan's National Space Program Office. ROCSAT carried a Ka-band experimental communications payload, an ocean color imager experiment to study plankton distribution for fisheries management, and an instrument to measure thermal plasma in the equatorial ionosphere. It was equipped with a small hydrazine orbital adjustment engine.
ROCSAT-2, scheduled for 2003, was to observe and monitor the terrestrial and marine environment and natural resources throughout Taiwan, its remote islands and surrounding ocean. It would also carry a sprite imager to study electrodynamic coupling between thunderclouds and the upper atmosphere. Taiwan contracted for launch of ROCSAT-2 on an American Taurus booster.
On 4 May 2001 Taiwan and the United States on Thursday signed an agreement to produce and launch by the end of 2005 six ROCSAT-3 micro satellites for weather forecasting. Taiwan companies were to be awarded contracts for the major components. ROCSAT-3 was part of Taiwan's 15-year space program launched in October 1991 at an estimated cost of $ 413 million.
Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb).
More... - Chronology...
First Launch: 1999.01.27.
Last Launch: 2008.10.01.
Number: 3 .
Athena Privately funded family of solid propellant satellite launch vehicles. Originally known as LMLV (Lockheed-Martin Launch Vehicle); LLV (Lockheed Launch Vehicle). Sales did not develop as hoped by the company after the MEO-satellite bubble burst in the 1990's. More...
R-36M The super-heavy Ukrainian R-36M ICBM replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos. The fall of the Soviet Union ended production and the need for replacement. Nevertheless they remained in Russian service into the 21st Century, some being modified for use as space launchers. More...
Taurus Pad-launched launch vehicle using Pegasus upper stages and Castor-120 first stage. More...
Associated Launch Vehicles
R-36M Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos. More...
Taurus American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Pad-launched launch vehicle using Pegasus upper stages and Castor-120 first stage. First launch used slightly larger Peacekeeper ICBM first stage instead of Castor-120. Under a 2002 contract from Boeing, Orbital developed a three-stage version of Taurus to serve as the interceptor boost vehicles for the US government's missile intercept system. The firm portion of the company's contract, awarded in early 2002, was valued at $450 million and extended through 2007. More...
Athena-1 American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Basic version of the Athena with a Castor 120 first stage, Orbus second stage, and OAM Orbital Adjustment Module. More...
Athena American orbital launch vehicle. Privately funded family of solid propellant satellite launch vehicles. Originally known as LMLV (Lockheed-Martin Launch Vehicle); LLV (Lockheed Launch Vehicle). Sales did not develop as hoped by the company after the MEO-satellite bubble burst in the 1990's. More...
Dnepr Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle based on decommissioned R-36M2 intercontinental ballistic missiles. More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
TRW American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. TRW Corporation, Redondo Beach, CA, USA. More...
NSPO Taiwanese manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. National Space Program Office, Taiwan. More...
McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
Associated Launch Sites
Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
Vandenberg Vandenberg Air Force Base is located on the Central Coast of California about 240 km northwest of Los Angeles. It is used for launches of unmanned government and commercial satellites into polar orbit and intercontinental ballistic missile test launches toward the Kwajalein Atoll. More...
Cape Canaveral LC46 Trident, Athena launch complex. This complex was built as part of the U.S. Navy's Trident II ballistic missile effort at the Cape. Construction was underway in February 1984, and the complex was ordnance-certified in November 1986. Complex 46 supported the Cape's first Trident II test missile launch on 15 January 1987. Eighteen more Trident IIs were launched from the site between 17 March 1987 and 27 January 1989. As Trident launch operations moved out to sea later in 1989, the complex was placed on standby status awaiting special Trident II test requirements. No new requirements surfaced in the 1990s, but the Spaceport Florida Authority (SFA) won $4,890,000 in Air Force grants to redesign Complex 46 to handle small commercial space launch operations (e.g., Lockheed Martin's new LMLV-2 space launch vehicle). More...
Dombarovskiy Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1964-present. Operated 64 heavy ICBM silos (R-36/R-36M). One silo was modified to launch surplus R-36M missiles as orbital launch vehicles, and used for used for 3 launches from 2004 to 2007. More...
1999 January 27 -
00:34 GMT - .
: Cape Canaveral
. Launch Complex
: Cape Canaveral LC46
. Launch Pad
: SLC46. LV Family
. Launch Vehicle
. LV Configuration
: Athena-1 LM-006.
- ROCSAT-1 - .
Mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Nation: Taiwan. Agency: NSPO. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: ROCSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 25616 . COSPAR: 1999-002A. Apogee: 653 km (405 mi). Perigee: 606 km (376 mi). Inclination: 35.0000 deg. Taiwan's first satellite, with experimental communications, ocean imagery, and ionospheric studies instruments. The Primex OAM placed itself and the payload into an elliptical transfer orbit. A second OAM burn circularized the orbit, and ROCSAT separated into a 588 x 601 km x 35.0 deg orbit.
2004 May 20 -
17:47 GMT - .
. Launch Complex
: Vandenberg 576E
. LV Family
. Launch Vehicle
: Taurus 3210
. LV Configuration
: Taurus 3210 T7 (XL).
- ROCSAT 2 - .
Payload: LeoStar 500XO. Mass: 760 kg (1,670 lb). Nation: Taiwan. Agency: NSPO. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: ROCSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 28254 . COSPAR: 2004-018A. Apogee: 891 km (553 mi). Perigee: 887 km (551 mi). Inclination: 99.1000 deg. Period: 102.80 min. Summary: Delayed from October, November 25, 2003; January 17, February 26, April 9 and 22, May 17, 2004..
2008 October 1 -
. LV Family
. Launch Vehicle
- Theos - .
Mass: 715 kg (1,576 lb). Nation: Thailand. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: ROCSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 33396 . COSPAR: 2008-049A. Apogee: 693 km (430 mi). Perigee: 673 km (418 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 98.40 min. Summary: Thai surveillance satellite, based on EADS Astrium bus used for ROCSAT-2..
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