Encyclopedia Astronautica
Rubin


German technology microsatellite. 8 launches, the first on 2000.07.15 (Rubin). Rubin was developed by OHB and students of the Hochschule Bremen.

First Launch: 2000.07.15.
Last Launch: 2009.09.23.
Number: 8 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Kosmos 3 In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • PSLV Indian third-generation launch vehicle, large enough to carry polar-orbiting earth resources satellites. More...
  • R-36M The super-heavy Ukrainian R-36M ICBM replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos. The fall of the Soviet Union ended production and the need for replacement. Nevertheless they remained in Russian service into the 21st Century, some being modified for use as space launchers. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Kosmos 3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • Kosmos 11K65M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Definitive and prolific production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-14 IRBM. After further development at NPO Polyot (Omsk, Chief Designer A S Klinishkov), the modified Kosmos-3M added a restartable second stage with an orientation system. This booster was launched form two 'Cusovaya' launch complexes from 1967. The second stage used low thrust rockets using gas generator output to adjust the final velocity of the stage More...
  • PSLV Indian third-generation launch vehicle, large enough to carry polar-orbiting earth resources satellites. More...
  • Dnepr Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle based on decommissioned R-36M2 intercontinental ballistic missiles. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • RVSN Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Raketniye Voiska Stratigcheskovo Naznacheniya (Russian Strategic Rocket Forces), Russia. More...
  • Bremen German manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. OHB System GmbH, Germany. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...
  • Sriharikota India's primary space launch center, located on the east coast of the peninsula with a firing sector over the Bay of Bengal. In use from 1971 to present. More...

Rubin Chronology


2000 July 15 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47136-414.
  • Rubin - . Nation: Germany. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Rubin. Decay Date: 2001-08-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 26406 . COSPAR: 2000-039C. Apogee: 463 km (288 mi). Perigee: 411 km (255 mi). Inclination: 87.2558 deg. Period: 93.23 min. Summary: Rubin was a microsatellite to measure launch vehicle parameters developed by OHB and students of the Hochschule Bremen. Rubin remained attached to the payload adapter of the Kosmos-3M final stage..

2002 November 28 - . 06:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Rubin-3-DSI - . Mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: NCST. Manufacturer: Polyot; Bremen. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Rubin. USAF Sat Cat: 27561 . COSPAR: 2002-054C. Apogee: 748 km (464 mi). Perigee: 687 km (426 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 99.10 min. Delayed from September 12, October 29. Rubin-3-DSI, with a mass of 45 kg, was built by PO Polyot of Omsk (builders of the Kosmos-3M) and OHB System of Bremen. It remained attached to the booster final stage and measured the launch vehicle environment and performance

2002 December 20 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr 1.
  • Rubin 2 - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Rubin. USAF Sat Cat: 27609 . COSPAR: 2002-058E. Apogee: 645 km (400 mi). Perigee: 639 km (397 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Summary: Messaging technology satellite..

2003 September 27 - . 06:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 3M.
  • Rubin 4-DSI - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: KVR. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Rubin. USAF Sat Cat: 27945 . COSPAR: 2003-042G. Apogee: 693 km (430 mi). Perigee: 676 km (420 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.50 min. RUBIN-4-dsi remained attached to the Kosmos launch vehicle final stage. The orbital telematics experiment transmited information on the rocketís acceleration, vibration load and position via e-mail using the Orbcomm satellite communications system. In this way, it will be possible to track the rocket in orbit reliably and without any data loss. RUBIN-4-dsi was the fourth micro-satellite from the RUBIN series developed and maintained by OHB.

2005 October 27 - . 06:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 104.
  • Rubin-5 - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KVR. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Rubin. USAF Sat Cat: 28898 . COSPAR: 2005-043G. Apogee: 712 km (442 mi). Perigee: 684 km (425 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.70 min. Summary: Technology/communications payload attached to the Kosmos 3M's upper stage It used the Orbcomm satellite system to return data to earth. Rubin-5 included the AATiS SAFIR-S amateur transponder and the ESA ASOLANT solar-powered GPS antenna experiment..

2008 April 28 - . 03:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV.
  • Rubin-8-AIS - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Rubin. USAF Sat Cat: 32792 . COSPAR: 2008-021K. Apogee: 662 km (411 mi). Perigee: 619 km (384 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 97.50 min. Summary: Remained attached to PSLV final stage; carried a payload for relaying identification beacon data from shipping..

2009 September 23 - . 06:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV CA. LV Configuration: PSLV CA.
  • Rubin-9.1 - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Rubin. USAF Sat Cat: 35936 . COSPAR: 2009-051F. Apogee: 795 km (493 mi). Perigee: 715 km (444 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.90 min. Summary: Maritime communications package which remained attached to the PSLV final stage..
  • Rubin-9.2 - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Rubin. USAF Sat Cat: 35936 . COSPAR: 2009-051F. Apogee: 795 km (493 mi). Perigee: 715 km (444 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.90 min. Summary: Maritime communications package which remained attached to the PSLV final stage..

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