Encyclopedia Astronautica
Salyut 4



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Salyut 4
Salyut 4 space station at RKK Energia Museum
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Salyut 4 in Assembly
Salyut 4 in Assembly Hall
Credit: RKK Energia
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Salyut 4 toilet
View of Salyut 4 toilet facility - you always wanted to know how they do it in space...
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Salyut 4 panel
Close-up of Salyut 4 propellant system control panel
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Salyut 4 Main Panel
Salyut 4 Main Control Panel - adopted unchanged from Soyuz 7K-OK
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Salyut 4 panel
Salyut 4 Control Panel - above and to the right of the main station control panel
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Salyut 4 rear int.
Salyut 4 view of rear interior of station
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Salyut 4 airlock
Salyut 4 airlock compartment
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Interior of Salyut 4
Interior of Salyut 4 looking forward.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Salyut 4
Salyut 4 - Soyuz 17
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Salyut 4
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Salyut 6
Salyut 6 as displayed in Moscow in 1981.
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian manned space station. 2 launches, 1973.05.11 (Cosmos 557) to 1974.12.26 (Salyut 4). Four of the initial DOS-1 versions of a civilian Soviet space station were built using converted Almaz military stations.

DOS-1 was launched as Salyut 1 on 19 April 1971. The triumph turned to tragedy when the Soyuz-11 crew died due to de-pressurization of their re-entry capsule during return to the earth. Launches of the first series DOS stations continued in a desperate effort to beat Skylab into orbit with a fully successful Soviet space station mission. DOS-2, s/n 122, was destroyed in a launch vehicle explosion en route to orbit in July 1972. DOS-3, s/n 123, reached orbit as Cosmos 557 in 1973 but control was lost before a crew could be sent to the station. DOS-4, the last of the first series, finally flew successfully as Salyut 4 in 1974. Salyut 4 differed from Salyut 1 in having three sets or rotatable solar panels, more electrical power, and a more complete equipment suite.

Salyut 4 represented the second phase of DOS civilian space station. It had 2,000 kg of scientific equipment and two sets of 3 solar panels. It was equipped with the Delta navigation system. Experiments: - Solar telescope OST-1 with main mirror of 25 cm diameter, 2.5 m focal length, built by Crimean Astrophysical Observatory with spectrograph shortwave diffraction spectrometer for far ultraviolet emissions, oriented by maneuvering entire station - two X-ray telescopes - swivel chair for vestibular function tests - lower body negative pressure gear for cardiovascular studies - bicycle ergometer integrated physical trainer (electrically driven running track 1 m X .3 m with elastic cords providing 50 kg load) - penguin suits and alternate athletic suit - 15 medical experiments total - sensors for temperature and characteristics of upper atmosphere ITS-K infrared telescope spectrometer and ultraviolet spectrometer for study of earth's infrared radiation - multispectral earth resources camera - cosmic ray detector - embryological studies - new engineering instruments tested for orientation of station by celestial objects and in darkness - New autonomous navigation system calculates orbital elements without assistance from ground - teletypewriter - two spherical airlocks near main camera to ejects body wastes. Interior floor area: 34.8 sq. m

Characteristics

RCS Coarse No x Thrust: Verniers: 4 X 98 N - Pitch: 2 X 59 N - Yaw: 2 X 59 N - Roll: 2 X 20 N. RCS Fine No x Thrust: 18 x 10 N. RCS Coarse Backup No x Thrust: 4 x 98 N. Spacecraft delta v: 320 m/s (1,040 ft/sec). Electric System: 2.00 average kW.

AKA: 11F715.
Gross mass: 18,210 kg (40,140 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 16,210 kg (35,730 lb).
Height: 13.07 m (42.88 ft).
Span: 17.00 m (55.00 ft).
Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf).
Specific impulse: 282 s.
First Launch: 1973.05.11.
Last Launch: 1974.12.26.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • KTDU-35 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 4.09 kN. Out of Production. Isp=280s. Soyuz, Salyut 4 maneuvering engine. KTDU-53 version in L-1 circumlunar spacecraft; KTDU-66 in Salyut 1 space station. Thrusts 4.09 kN main + 4.03 kN secondary. First flight 1966. More...

See also
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes. More...
  • Proton-K Russian orbital launch vehicle. Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorised development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • Salyut The world's first space station, developed in one year by the Soviet Union on the basis of Chelomei's Almaz station, in an attempt to upstage the American Skylab after the loss of the moon landing race to the Americans. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Hydrazine Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Hydrazine (N2H4) found early use as a fuel, but it was quickly replaced by UDMH. It is still used as a monopropellant for satellite station-keeping motors. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Semenov, Yuri P Editor, Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya 'Energia' imeni S P Koroleva, Moscow, Russia, 1996.
  • Clark, Philip, The Soviet Manned Space Program, Salamander Books, London, 1988.
  • Furniss, Tim, Manned Spaceflight Log, Jane's, London, 1986.
  • Oberg, James, Red Star in Orbit, Random House, New York, 1981.
  • Kaesmann, Ferdinand, et. al., "Proton - Development of A Russian Launch Vehicle", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 1998, Volume 51, page 3.
  • Semenov, Yu. P., S P Korolev Space Corporation Energia, RKK Energia, 1994.
  • Vladimirov, A, "Tablitsa zapuskov RN 'Proton' i 'Proton K'", Novosti kosmonavtiki, 1998, Issue 10, page 25.
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Salyut 4 Chronology


1973 May 11 - . 00:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 284-01.
  • Cosmos 557 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 123. Mass: 19,400 kg (42,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 4. Duration: 10.98 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6498 . COSPAR: 1973-026A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Salyut failure. Unsuccessful mission. Salyut out of control. Decayed May 22, 1973. Was to have been manned by initial crew of Leonov and Kubasov. Last chance to upstage Skylab, launched three days later..

1974 December 26 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 284-02.
  • Salyut 4 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 124. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 4. Duration: 768.82 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 7591 . COSPAR: 1974-104A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Deorbited February 2, 1977.
    Maneuver Summary:
    211km X 250km orbit to 215km X 286km orbit. Delta V: 11 m/s
    211km X 284km orbit to 276km X 344km orbit. Delta V: 35 m/s
    277km X 342km orbit to 338km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 19 m/s
    330km X 340km orbit to 337km X 350km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    337km X 349km orbit to 339km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    332km X 348km orbit to 348km X 355km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s
    347km X 354km orbit to 343km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    335km X 344km orbit to 335km X 360km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    335km X 360km orbit to 342km X 361km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    330km X 351km orbit to 344km X 353km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    186km X 187km orbit to 90km X 186km orbit. Delta V: 28 m/s
    Total Delta V: 87/115 m/s.
    Officially: Further testing of station design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments in outer space. Further testing of station design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical researc h and experiments in outer space.

1977 February 2 - .
  • Burnup of the Salyut 4 Space Station (USSR) - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Salyut 4.

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