Encyclopedia Astronautica
SAR-Lupe


German military surveillance radar satellite. 5 launches, 2006.12.19 (SAR-Lupe 1) to 2008.07.22 (SAR-Lupe 5). Germany's first satellite-based radar reconnaissance system. It consisted of five identical small satellites and a ground segment.

OHB-System AG developed the overall system as prime contractor for the German Federal Ministry of Defense. SAR-Lupe operated independently of weather conditions on a 7/24 basis. It delivered up-to-date and highly detailed images from virtually all regions of the world. The ground segments of SAR-Lupe and the French optical reconnaissance system Helios II were used jointly as the core element of European-wide strategic reconnaissance operations.

The five SAR-Lupe satellites were to be placed in circular orbits in three orbital planes to provide worldwide coverage. The individual satellites consisted of the three-axis stabilized bus and fixed-parabolic reflector antenna of the Synthetic Aperture Radar and had the following characteristics:

  • Size: approx. 4 m x 3 m x 2 m
  • Weight: ca. 770 kg
  • Average power consumption: ca. 250 W
  • Life time: 10 years
  • Reliability: better than 97 % per year
  • Telemetry: encrypted X-Band for data transmission, encrypted S-Band for command and telemetry via ground station and intersatellite-link, encrypted
  • Attitude control: by reaction wheels and magnetic torquers
  • Orbit control: Liquid gas thrusters
  • Intersatellite link: S-Band for orders, Encrypted

Electric System: 0.25 average kW.

Gross mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb).
Height: 4.00 m (13.10 ft).
Diameter: 2.00 m (6.50 ft).
First Launch: 2006.12.19.
Last Launch: 2008.07.22.
Number: 5 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Kosmos 3 In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Kosmos 3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • Kosmos 11K65M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Definitive and prolific production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-14 IRBM. After further development at NPO Polyot (Omsk, Chief Designer A S Klinishkov), the modified Kosmos-3M added a restartable second stage with an orientation system. This booster was launched form two 'Cusovaya' launch complexes from 1967. The second stage used low thrust rockets using gas generator output to adjust the final velocity of the stage More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Bremen German manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. OHB System GmbH, Germany. More...
  • BWB German manufacturer of spacecraft. BWB, Germany. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...

SAR-Lupe Chronology


2006 December 19 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53727-226.
  • SAR-Lupe 1 - . Mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: BWB. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: SAR-Lupe. USAF Sat Cat: 29658 . COSPAR: 2006-060A. Apogee: 506 km (314 mi). Perigee: 467 km (290 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 94.30 min. Summary: First of five planned German military surveillance satellites using synthetic aperture radar for target coverage at night and in all weathers. Orbital plane ascending node 143 deg..

2007 July 2 - . 19:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 11K65M-SL.
  • SAR-Lupe 2 - . Mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: BWB. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: SAR-Lupe. USAF Sat Cat: 31797 . COSPAR: 2007-030A. Apogee: 508 km (315 mi). Perigee: 470 km (290 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Summary: Second of five planned German military surveillance satellites using synthetic aperture radar for target coverage at night and in all weathers. Orbital plane ascending node 208 deg..

2007 November 1 - . 00:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 11K65M-SL.
  • SAR-Lupe 3 - . Mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: KVR. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: SAR-Lupe. USAF Sat Cat: 32283 . COSPAR: 2007-053A. Apogee: 496 km (308 mi). Perigee: 474 km (294 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 94.30 min. Summary: Third SAR-Lupe radar satellite. The final stage also carried a small Automatic Identification System package by OHB/Bremen, designed to test a system for monitoring shipping traffic. Orbital plane ascending node 272 deg..

2008 March 27 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 11K65M-SL.
  • SAR-Lupe 4 - . Mass: 730 kg (1,600 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: KVR. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: SAR-Lupe. USAF Sat Cat: 32750 . COSPAR: 2008-014A. Apogee: 502 km (311 mi). Perigee: 471 km (292 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 94.30 min. Summary: Fourth of five planned German military surveillance satellites using synthetic aperture radar for target coverage at night and in all weathers. Orbital plane ascending node 143 deg, same plane as SAR-Lupe 1..

2008 July 22 - . 02:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • SAR-Lupe 5 - . Mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: KVR. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: SAR-Lupe. USAF Sat Cat: 33244 . COSPAR: 2008-036A. Apogee: 501 km (311 mi). Perigee: 474 km (294 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Summary: Fifth German SAR-Lupe radar surveillance satellite..

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