Encyclopedia Astronautica
Sfera



cos381.jpg
Cosmos 381
Cosmos 381 / Ionosfernaya
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian earth geodetic satellite. 18 launches, 1968.02.20 (Cosmos 203) to 1978.12.26 (Cosmos 1067). The Sfera geodetic system covered a broad development for solving problems in geodetics, continental drift, and precise location of cartographic points.

The spacecraft was equipped with measurement and signaling apparatus, providing assistance in measuring astronomical-geodetic points of military topographical research for the Red Army General Staff. The satellite allowed improved accuracy for long range weapons.

Reshetnev was the Chief Designer. Flight tests were from 1968 to 1972, and the system was accepted for military service in 1973. Series flights were from 1973 to 1980. The Kosmos 3M launcher was used. Colonel Ye S Shchapov was in charge of Sfera development. Sfera used the basic KAUR-1 bus, consisting of a 2.035 m diameter cylindrical spacecraft body, with solar cells and radiators of the thermostatic temperature regulating system mounted on the exterior. Orientation was by a single-axis magneto-gravitational (gravity gradient boom) passive system. The hermetically sealed compartment had the equipment mounted in cruciform bays, with the chemical batteries protecting the radio and guidance equipment mounted at the centre.

AKA: 11F621.
Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb).
Height: 3.00 m (9.80 ft).
Span: 2.04 m (6.68 ft).
First Launch: 1968.02.20.
Last Launch: 1978.12.26.
Number: 18 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Kosmos 3 In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Kosmos 3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • Kosmos 11K65M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Definitive and prolific production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-14 IRBM. After further development at NPO Polyot (Omsk, Chief Designer A S Klinishkov), the modified Kosmos-3M added a restartable second stage with an orientation system. This booster was launched form two 'Cusovaya' launch complexes from 1967. The second stage used low thrust rockets using gas generator output to adjust the final velocity of the stage More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Reshetnev Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Reshetnev Design Bureau, Krasnoyarsk-26/Zhelenogorsk, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..
  • Golotyuk, S, "Sputnikostroiteli s beregov Yeniseya", Novosti kosmonavtiki, No. 10, 1999, p. 64.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...

Sfera Chronology


1968 February 20 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/pad?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 203 - . Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 3129 . COSPAR: 1968-011A. Apogee: 1,201 km (746 mi). Perigee: 1,183 km (735 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 109.30 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1968 June 4 - . 06:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Sfera s/n 12L - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Sfera. COSPAR: F680604A.

1968 November 30 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/pad?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 256 - . Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 3576 . COSPAR: 1968-106A. Apogee: 1,223 km (759 mi). Perigee: 1,172 km (728 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 109.40 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1969 March 17 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/pad?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 272 - . Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 3818 . COSPAR: 1969-024A. Apogee: 1,208 km (750 mi). Perigee: 1,178 km (731 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 109.30 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1969 November 24 - . 16:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/pad?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 312 - . Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 4254 . COSPAR: 1969-103A. Apogee: 1,175 km (730 mi). Perigee: 1,141 km (708 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 108.50 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1971 April 28 - . 14:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53727-115.
  • Cosmos 409 - . Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 5180 . COSPAR: 1971-038A. Apogee: 1,211 km (752 mi). Perigee: 1,176 km (730 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 109.30 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1971 November 20 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47114-106.
  • Cosmos 457 - . Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 5614 . COSPAR: 1971-099A. Apogee: 1,218 km (756 mi). Perigee: 1,183 km (735 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 109.40 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1972 March 25 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/pad?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 480 - . Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 5905 . COSPAR: 1972-019A. Apogee: 1,199 km (745 mi). Perigee: 1,173 km (728 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 109.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1972 December 21 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M Yu149-43.
  • Cosmos 539 - . Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 6319 . COSPAR: 1972-102A. Apogee: 1,379 km (856 mi). Perigee: 1,342 km (833 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 112.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1973 September 8 - . 01:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 60527-114.
  • Cosmos 585 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 6825 . COSPAR: 1973-064A. Apogee: 1,404 km (872 mi). Perigee: 1,375 km (854 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 113.60 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1974 April 29 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M Yu47121-15.
  • Cosmos 650 - . Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 7281 . COSPAR: 1974-028A. Apogee: 1,401 km (870 mi). Perigee: 1,368 km (850 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 113.40 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1974 August 29 - . 14:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53719-154.
  • Cosmos 675 - . Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 7424 . COSPAR: 1974-069A. Apogee: 1,424 km (884 mi). Perigee: 1,364 km (847 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 113.60 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1975 February 12 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53749-166.
  • Cosmos 708 - . Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 7663 . COSPAR: 1975-012A. Apogee: 1,410 km (870 mi). Perigee: 1,368 km (850 mi). Inclination: 69.2000 deg. Period: 113.60 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1975 September 24 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53721-260.
  • Cosmos 770 - . Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 8325 . COSPAR: 1975-089A. Apogee: 1,208 km (750 mi). Perigee: 1,165 km (723 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 109.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1976 July 21 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53731-266.
  • Cosmos 842 - . Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 9025 . COSPAR: 1976-070A. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 966 km (600 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1977 May 25 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53799-163.
  • Cosmos 911 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 10019 . COSPAR: 1977-039A. Apogee: 999 km (620 mi). Perigee: 965 km (599 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1977 November 24 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53746-302.
  • Cosmos 963 - . Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 10491 . COSPAR: 1977-109A. Apogee: 1,206 km (749 mi). Perigee: 1,179 km (732 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 109.30 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1978 December 26 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53782-430.
  • Cosmos 1067 - . Mass: 880 kg (1,940 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 11168 . COSPAR: 1978-122A. Apogee: 1,213 km (753 mi). Perigee: 1,156 km (718 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 109.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

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